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Respriratory Science

Biochemistery of Hemoglobin; Bronchospasm Therapy Medications

QUESTIONANSWER
What are the two(2) CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDES that interact within BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS? cAMP (adenyl cyclase) & cGMP (guanyl cyclase)
What is cAMP and cGMP net physiologic effect on Bronchial Smooth Muscle? cAMP-B2 andrenergic recepror sites are stimulated, uses Mg2+ to convert ATP to cAMP to result in Bronchodilation.cGMP - A-andrenergic receptors stimulated , coverts guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic GMP
What does the A-andrenergic blockade drugs do? Influences the biochemical event of preventing guanyl cyclase activation which PREVENTS bronchoconstriction
What does B2-andrenergic stimulation drugs do? influences the biochemical event of adenyl cyclase activation causing brochodilation
What is the purpose of a Phosphodiestrase inhibition medications? influences the biochemical event prevents dehydration of cyclic AMP to 5-AMP, thus keeping it active longer which PREVENTS the chance of bronchoconstriction.
Whis is the main use of cholinerginergic stimulation medications? influences the biochemical event guanyl cyclase activation resulting in bronchoconstriction.
Describe the significance of antigen-antibody reactions on the surface of the mast cell? When exsposure of an appropriate antigen occurs (2 IgE molecules) of the same specificity, the antibody reaction triggers the biochemical sequence that leads to mast cell degranulation.
ALBUTEROL( Ventolin,Proventil) B2 stimulation; adenyl cyclase activation, increase in cyclic AMP
BITOLTEROL(Tornalate) B2 stimulation; adenyl cyclase activation, increase in cyclic AMP
PIRBUTEROL(Maxair) B2 stimlation; adenyl cyclase activation, increase cyclic AMP
TERBUTALINE(Brenthine,Brieanyl) B2 stimulation; adenyl cyclase activation, increase in cyclic AMP
EPINEPHRINE(Adrenaline) B2 stimulation(cardiac);adenyl cyclase activation, increase in cyclic AMP
IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE(Atrovent) Cholinergic Blockade;prevents guanyl cyclase activation,decrease cGMP
OXYTOPIUM BROMIDE(Spiriva) cholinergic blockade; prevents guanyl cyclase activation,decreses in cGMP
PHENTOLAMINE A-BLOCKADE(CARDIAC); PREVENTS guanyl cyclase, Deacrease cGMP
TOLAZOLINE(priscoline) A-BLOCKADE;PREVENTS guanyl cyclase, decrease cGMP
ZAFIRLUKAST(Accolate) LEUKOTRIENE MODIFIER;ANTI-INFLAMMATION,BRONCHODILATION
MONTELUKAST(Singulair) LEUKOTRIENE MODIFIER; ANTI-INFLAMMATION, BRONCHODILATION
ZILEUTON(zyflo) LEUKOTRIENE MODIFIER; 5' lipoxygenase inhibitor
CROMOLYN SODIUM(Intal) BLOCKS ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTION; PREVENTS MAST CELL DEGRANULATION AND MEDIATOR RELEADE
NEDOCROMIL(Tilade) BLOCKS antigen-antibody reaction; PREVENTS mast cell degranulation and mediator release
METHYLXANTHINES(Theophyline,caffene,Theobromide,Aminophylline) PHOSPHODIESTERASE inhibition; prevents degradation of cyclic AMP to 5'- AMP; increases cAMP
ATROPINE BLOCKS cholinergic-induced bronchospasm,bronchodilatory action
TERBUTALINE B2 agonist stimlation during a bronchospasm
Relate the utility of cromolyn for the treatment of asthma. non-steriodal medication (anti-inflammatory) can reduce the need for quick relivers and reduce bronchial hyperrespnsiveness. also can improve morning peak flow and decrease symptoms of nocturnal asthma
Describe the make-up of methemoglobin? Ferrous ion (Fe2+) in the heme portion of hemoglobin becomes oxidized to the ferric state (Fe3+);tyrosine substitutes histidine in either A or B chain in the Globin protion of the hemeglobin molecule. tyrosine causes ferrous ion to oxidize to ferric state
How does mehemoglobin affect tissue oxygenation? I
Oxygen attachment on hemoglobin? Pyrrole Ferrous ion(heme portion)
Attachment od CO2 on hemoglobin? Teminal Amine group Globin portion
Attachment of H+ on hemoglobin? imidazole group on deoxygenated hemoglobin
Discuss how coperativity enhances the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin at the lungs and how it facilitates the release of oxygen to the cells at the tissues? Cooperativity ehances bonding of oxygen by increasing bonding potentional. Conversely, at the tissue level the unloading of oxygen molecule facilitates the release at oxygen at the other sited
4 factors that inflence oxygen- hemoglobin affinity? body temp. , PaCO2, Arterial pH, 2-3-DPG
Define Bohr Effect: Effect of Carbon Dioxide or (H+) pn uptake and relase of oxygen from the hemoglobin(effect mild)
Define Haldane Effect: influence of CO2 binding and unbinding on the release and uptake of oxygen , respectively, by the hemoglobin molecule
Created by: jweezy_2005