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morerbwrksheets

more radiobio worksheets from casey

QuestionAnswer
This can be seen in karyotyping Main chain
Crosslinking Sticky spurs
Point lesions Messes with chemical bonds of DNA not visible in karyotyping
Dicentric 2 centromeres
Accentric No centromeres
If two acentric fragments do not find anywhere to go and come together what happens There is a loss of genetic information(this is the most common occurance)
Ring chromosome Don’t have ends so attaches to itself this causes death of the chromosome and the more you have the higher the chance of cell death
Radiation effects are Non-specific
Direct hit High LET radiations
X ray damage is caused by __________ness Randomness it does not go after a particular area of cell
Radiolysis The interaction of water with radiation
90 to 95 percent of human interaction is with water, indirect
Multi target multi hit apply to human cells, more than one target
Single target single hit Applies to enzymes, viruses, and simple cells such as bacteria
D37 mean The measure of the radiosensitivity of biologic tissue
Low D37= High sensitivity (radiosenstive)
High D37= Low sensitivity (radioresistant)
Do means Lethal dose
Large Do = Radioresistant cells takes a high dose to kill
Small Do= Radiosensitive cells
DQ Threshold dose
The wider the shoulder the more recoverability
The smaller the shoulder the Less chance of recovery
Cell cycle time takes 24 hours
How long it takes is determined by G1 phase
High LET is more damaging than low LET
Different types of ionizing radiation have different LET
The efficiency for producing a given response is related to Linear Energy transfer
Part of the law of b and t stem cells are radiosensitive
The law of b and t states that Radiosensitivity increases with proliferation rate
The response of tissue to radiation is principally a function of dose
The RBE Is a descriptor of the type of radiation
The law of b and t relates to radiosensitivity and cellular differentiation
This is higher for high LET radiation than for low LET radiation RBE
How is LET measured KeV/Um
This has a high LET Alpha particles
The maximum value of RBE is 3
Dose fractionation is less effective than a single dose because Recovery, occurs between doses
The OER Is highest for low LET radiation
LET is useful for expressing radiation Quality
What is related to radiation protection as LET is related to radiobiology Radiation weighting factor (WR) quality factor
This has low LET Cobalt 60 gamma rays
Dose protraction relates principally to Dose rate
Considered a physical dose-modifying factor Dose protraction
Considered a biological dose modifying factor The oxygen effect
Dose fractionation is less effective than an equal single dose because of Cellular recovery
Why do we develop radiation dose-response relationships To predict the harmful effects of radiation after an accident
Radiation induced damage in tissue Is greater in the presence of oxygen
When one considers the biologic modifying factors to a radiation response Age is a factor and sex is a factor
Why is a linear,nonthreshold dose response relationship used as a model for radiation protection guides Because in a nonthreshold dose relationship, any dose is expected to produce a response
The least sensitive time in life to radiation exposure is There is no least sensitive time
Exhibits a threshold type of radiation dose-response relationship Cataracts
When a radiation dose-response relationship intercepts the response axis at a positive value That response is not related to radiation
follows a nonlinear, threshold type of dose-response relationship Death
dose limits (DLs) are based on this type of radiation dose-response relationship Linear, nonthreshold
the late effects of diagnostic x rays probably follow which type of radiation dose-response relationship Linear, nonthreshold
a wide error bar on a graphic data point indicates what Little confidence
this factor has no influence on response to radiation exposure Occupation
these do have an influence on the response to radiation exposure Age, dose protraction, oxygen tension, and sex
humans are most sensitive to radiation In utero
when an irradiated cell dies before the next mitosis, this is called Interphase death
a linear, nonthreshold dose response relationship Suggest that even the smallest dose may be risky
when a linear, nonthreshold dose response relationship intersects the response axis at zero dose, this means that There is a natural incidence of the response
the genetically significant dose (GSD) Depends on the average gonadal dose for various procedures
RBE 1 and max is 3
LET of diag x ray is 3 kev/m
Radiation effects at the total body occur because of radiation damage to cells
Cellular damage occurs because of molecular responses to radiation
DQ is the Threshold dose or shoulder dose
If undifferentiated cells are irradiated in vivo Such cells are sensitive to radiation
Phase of the cell cycle that is considered most resistant Late S phase
When cell survival curves are used, the measure of cell radiosensitivity is DO
When irradiated with high LET radiation, human cells follow which of the following models The multitarget, single hit model
The probability of human cell death can be computed Using the poisson distribution
If a dose equal to D37 were uniformly distributed, what percentage of cells would survive 0%
Means mean lethal dose DO
The multitarget, single hit model Presumes a threshold
The difference in generation time among different types of cells is due mainly to the length of the G1 phase
Does not affect the radiation response of mammalian cells Sex of cell
Does affect the radiation response of mammalian cells Dose rate, LET, presence of oxygen, stage of the cell in its cycle
In a cellular radiobiology Single cells are allowed to grow into colonies
According to the multitarget model of cell lethality Cells have more than one critical target, each of which has to be inactivated for cell death
According to target theory Radiation interacts randomly
When irradiated with x-rays, human cells follow the multitarget, single hit model
To explain radiation effects on living cells, target theory states that A target can receive a hit by direct or indirect effect
If a dose equal to D37 were randomly distributed what percentage of cells would die 63%
Of the various macromolecules that are sensitive to radiation, the most sensitive is DNA
Usually, radiation interacts with DNA Indirectly
Free radical ions are associated with biologic injury induced by what type of radiation Diagnostic s rays
A reactive atom or molecule that has an unpaired electron in its outer shell is called Free radical
The genetic code of DNA Is transcribed by mRNA
If an affect of radiation on molecular DNA Cross-linking
After a low radiation dose, most cellular radiation damage that results in a late total body effect occurs because of Point lesions
The biologically reactive molecular byproducts formed during radiolysis of water are thought to be H* and OH*
Radiation may interfere with DNA synthesis by The G1 effect, which is the failure to commence DNA synthesis because of damage that occurs during the G1 period
May occur in DNA molecules as a result of irradiation A double strand break
When water is irradiated products of the initial interaction are OHO+ and e-
Example of anabolism Protein synthesis
Radiation induced changes in DNA that result in genetic damage follow which type of dose response relationship Linear non threshold
This is a free radical HO2
When molecules are irradiated In suspension, they are irradiated in solution
Radiation effects at the total body level occur mainly because of Indirect effect
Hydrogen ion H+
Hydroxyl free radical OH*
Positively charged water H2O+
Hydroxyl ion OH-
Hydrogen free radical H*
Created by: hseratt