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Psychology CH6

Learning

QuestionAnswer
Thorndike's view that pleasant events stamp in responses, and unpleasant events stamp them out. Law of Effect
A pleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows. Reward
An unpleasant stimulus that suppresses the behavior it follows. Punishment
To follow a response with a stimulus that increases the frequency of the response. Reinforcement
Invented the Skinner Box and performed the pigeon project during WW2. B.F. Skinner
Behavior that operates on, or manipulates, the environment. Operant Behavior
A simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in certain behavior because it is reinforced. Operant Conditioning
The same as an operant behavior. Operant
An instrument that records the frequency of an organism's operants (or "correct" responses) as a function of the passage of time. Cumulative Recorder
A reinforcer that when presented increases the frequency of an operant. Positive Reinforcer
A reinforcer that when removed increases the frequency of an operant. Negative Reinforcer
A reinforcer whose effectiveness is based on the biological makeup of the organism and not on learning. Primary Reinforcer
A stimulus that gains reinforcement value through association with established reinforcers. Secondary Reinforcer
Another term for a secondary reinforcer. Conditioned Reinforcer
Removal of an organism from a situation in which reinforcement is available when unwanted behavior is shown. Time Out
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that indicates that reinforcement is available (the lightbulb in Skinner Box. Discriminative Stimulus
A schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is reinforced. Continuous Reinforcement
One of several reinforcement schedules in which not every correct response is reinforced. Partial Reinforcement
A schedule in which a fixed amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available. Fixed-Interval Schedule
A schedule in which a variabl amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available. Variable-Interval Schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses. Fixed-Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses. Variable-Ratio Schedule
A procedure for teaching complex behaviors that at first reinforces approximations of the target behavior. Shaping
Behaviors that are progressively closer to a target behavior. Successive Approximations
Therapy techniques based on principles on learning that teach adaptive behavior and extinguish or discourage maladaptive behavior. Behavior Modification
A method of teaching that breaks down tasks into small steps, each of which is reinforced and then combined to form the correct behavioral chain. Programmed Learning
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. Cognitive Map
Learning that is hidden or concealed. Latent Learning
An organism that engages in a response that is then imitated by another organism. Model
Created by: SSalvage139