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AP Psych Unit 2

Critical Thinking Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, and assesses conclusions.
Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it (AKA I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
Theory An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
Experimental Group IN an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Hypothesis A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups.
Operational Definition A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
Control Group In an experiment, the group is not exposed to the treatment, contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Independent Variable the experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied.
Confounding Variable a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
Dependent Variable the outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situations
Mode the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
Correlation Coefficient A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to 1)
Correlation A measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
Median The middle score in a distribution, half the scores are above it and half are below it.
Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores
Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Debriefing the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.
Culture The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Placebo Effect Experimental results caused by expectations alone, any effect on behavior caused by the admin. Of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes, is an active agent.
The Scientific Method a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature’s answers.
Illusory Correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists.
Informed Consent an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
Scatter plot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. Slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (ind. Variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dep. Variable)
Double-Blind Procedure an experimental procedure in which bother the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
Population all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn (except for natural studies)
Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Mean The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
Replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Statistical Significance a statistical statement of ho likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
Normal Curve (normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores all near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes.
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