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chapter 32 radiobiol


Cytoplasm The largest part of the cell enclosed by the cell membrane
Alara As Low As Reasonably Achievable
Cell-theory The idea that all plants and animals contain cells as their basic fundamental units, shown conclusively by Schneider and Schwann in 1838
Anabolism A metabolic activity that builds up large molecules from small ones
Carbohydrate A macromolecule associated with energy storage for the cell
M,G1,S,G2 Phases of the cell cycle
Epithelium Tissue that covers an organ or body
Enzyme A molecule necessary to allow biochemical reaction to continue, although it does not directly enter into the reaction. Acts as a catalyst in chemical interactions.
Organic Molecule A molecule containing carbon
Late effects of radiation A response to radiation exposure that does not appear for months, or even years
At what structural level do x-rays interact with humans to produce a radiation response X- rays interact with electrons
How does ionizing radiation affect an atom within a large molecule The ionization can disrupt molecular bonds and cause the large molecule to malfunction.
List five human groups in which radiation effects have been observed Atomic bomb survivors, American radiologists, cyclotron physicists, radium watch dial painters, patients irradiated in utero, ankylosing spondylitis patients
What are the effects of radiation on an affected population Cancer and leukemia, life span shortening, cataracts, bone cancer, childhood cancer, and leukemia, respectively
What is the most abundant atom and the most abundant molecule in the body Hydrogen, water
What is a stem cell The earliest stage of a cell line. An immature cell that will develop into a mature cell
Why do we say that humans are basically a structured aqueous suspension Because water constitutes approximately 80% of human substance
What is the meaning of epithelium The tissue that covers an organ
How do proteins function in the human body A major component of muscle and functions as antibodies, enzymes, and hormones
What do carbohydrates do for us They store energy for subsequent use by the cell.
DNA is the abbreviation for what molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid
Which molecule is considered the genetic material of the cell DNA
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum To channel molecules in and out of the cytoplasm
What is the approximate dose of radiation required to produce a measurable physical change in a macromolecule 1 Mrad (10 kGy)
List the stages of cell reduction division of a somatic cell G1, S, G2, M
List the stages of cell reduction division of a genetic cell The cell undergoes a mitosis-like division, and each of the resulting cells undergoes an additional mitosis-like division without DNA replication.
What cell type is the most radiosensitive Spermatogonia, lymphocytes
What type of tissue is the least radiosensitive Nerve cells
List three early radiation effects and three late radiation effects in humans Skin erythema, organ atrophy, cytogenetic damage; cancer, leukemia, cataracts
Created by: hseratt