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What are the two parts of the nervous system? central and peripheral
what makes up the central? brain, spinal cord
what makes up the peripheral? somatic and autonomic
somatic: what I can control
autonomic: what I do involuntarily such as my heart beating, digestion, breathing, etc.
what are the two parts of autonomic? sympathetic, and parasympathetic
sympathetic: when your heart is beating fast, you're using alot of energy (flight or fight) -- like this when you're stressed
parasympathetic: body returning to normal state; balanced state; homeostasis (sex, digestion, etc.)
in order to be as healthy as possible: your sympathetic and parasympathetic must be in balance
What does the brain do? basic bodily function and survival, motivation and emotion, complex activities
What are the 3 main parts of the brain? the hindbrain (brain stem), cerebellum, midbrain, and forebrain
what are the 3 main parts of the hindbrain? medulla, pons, and cerebellum
what is the medulla in charge of? vital bodily functions (breathing, swallowing, blood circulation)
what is the pons in charge of? it's the bridge from the spinal cord to the brain; through which sensory and motor info. passes; also in charge of sleep, arousal, regulation of muscle tone
What is the cerebellum in charge of? really really basic motor activities (balance, walking, throwing, grabbing)
What is the midbrain in charge of? contains primitive centers for vision and hearing
what are the 3 main parts of the forebrain? corpus callosum, cerebral cortex/cerebrum, and the subcortical structures
What are the three subcortical structures? the limbic system, thalamus, and hypothalamus
What does the corpus callosum do? it is a wide band of fibers that connect the two hemispheres
what is the cerbral cortex/cerebrum? the wrinkley part of the brain
limbic system: motivational behaviors
thalamus: relay center (decides what comes into your brain and what goes out) helps you survive
hypothalamus: pleasure center (hunger, thirst, sexual behavior)
what are the technical terms for the folds and wrinkles on the cerebrum? gyrus and fissures
what are the 5 parts of the cerebrum? frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and ventricles
what does the frontal lobe do? motor cortex; Brocas area = produces speech
what does the parietal lobe do? somatosensory; touch, temperature, pressure
what does the occipital lobe do? vision
what does the temporal lobe do? stores hearing, memory, and personality; Wernickes Area... comprehension
when a person has a stroke, what is more likely to be damaged, the Brocas or the Wernickes? Brocas. The person will still be able to understand you, but they cannot respond
what are the ventricles? empty chambers in the brain
what do the ventricles do? hold spinal fluid
if you have too much spinal fluid you get hydrocephalus
What is the meninges? the 3 membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
Lateralization of Function: the idea that the two hemispheres of the brain are somewhat specialized
the research suggests that the left brain: is better at math, language, and speech
research suggests that the right brain: is better at creativity, sports, music, and space perception
Brain cells AKA neurons
Neurons are involved with: receiving, moving, and processing information
where are neurons located? in the brain and central and peripheral nervous system
dendrites: recieves info and transmits the info across the cell membrane of neurons
Action potential: a rapid shift in the electrical charge; the electrical charge
Cell body: nucleus
axon: the part of the neuron that conducts action potential away from the cell body
axon is covered by: a fatty material called Myelin
these cells surround, support, and protect neurons Glial cells
Nodes of Ranvier: small gaps in the myelin sheath
Axon terminals: structures at the end of axons that contain neurotransmitters
give two examples of neurotransmitters and what they are for: acetylcholine for memory; serotonin for sleep
synapse: a region where the axon of one neuron closely approaches other neurons or other cells
Created by: kelseyrae