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PSYC Chapter 2

Psychology Chapter 2 (CSUSM)

Procedures follow orderly steps that are carefully planned. Systematic
What is it when Psychologists study the what, when, and why of behavior and mental process? Scientific Inquiry
What is the general approach used by researchers in various fields to be confident in the conclusions drawn from their observations? Scientific Method
A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and predictions about future events. Theory
A specific, testable prediction about the outcome that would best support the theory. Hypothesis
A scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data. Research
Objective observations or measurements. Data
Something in the world that can vary that a researcher can measure. Variable
A research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or other animals to provide a systematic and objective analysis of the behavior. Descriptive Studies
A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation. Participant Observation
A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior. Naturalistic Observation
A research method that studies the same participants multiple times over a period of time. Longitudinal Studies
A research method that compares participants in different groups at the same time. Cross-Sectional Studies
Systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations. Observer Bias
Actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectation of the observer. Experimenter Expectancy Effect
A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them. Correlational Studies
A problem encountered in the correlational studies; the researchers find a relationship between two variables, but they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable. Directionality Problem
A problem that occurs when the researcher cannot directly manipulate variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the variables of interest. Third Variable Problem
A study that tests casual hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables. Experiment
A comparison group; the participants in a study that receive no intervention or receive and intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated. Control Group
Treatment groups; the participants in a study receive the intervention. Experimental Groups
In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable. Independent Variable
In an experiment, the variable that is affected (measured) by the manipulation of the independent variable. Dependent Variable
Anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study. Confound
Everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in. Population
A subset of a population. Sample
The degree to which the findings of an experiment can be generalized outside the laboratory. External Validity
In an experiment, unintended differences between the participants in different groups. Selection Bias
Each research participant has an equal chance of being assigned yo any level of the independent variable. Random Assignment
Studies that take into account the role that culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions. Culturally Sensitive Research
Systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior. Observational Techniques
When the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed. Reactivity
Intensive examination of unusual people or organization. Case Studies
Methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in questionnaires or surveys. Self-Report Methods
A research method in which researchers quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to a specific stimulus. Response Performance
A device that measures electrical activity in the brain. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
A method of brain imaging that assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
A method of brain imaging the produces high-quality images of the brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
An imaging technique used to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
The use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study the brain regions. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
Researchers examine how bodily functions (physiology) change in association with behaviors or mental states (psychology). Psychophysiological Assessment
The extent to which the data collected in a study addresses the research hypothesis in the way intended. Internal Validity
The extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions. Reliability
The extent to which and experimental measure is free from error. Accuracy
Statistics that summarize the data collected in a study. Descriptive Statistics
A measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole. Central Tendancy
A measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers. Mean
A measure of central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers that falls exactly halfway between the lowest and highest values. Median
A measure of central tendency that is the most frequent score or value in a set of numbers. Mode
In a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and from the mean. Variablity
A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on average, from the mean. Standard Deviation
A graphical depiction of the relationship between two variables. Scatterplot
A statistical value between -1 and +1 indication the type (negative or positive) and the strength of the relationship between 2 variables. Correlation Coefficient
A set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers. Inferential Statistics
A "study of studies" that combines the findings of multiple studies to arrive at a conclusion. Meta-Analysis
Created by: 831374349