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PA: Found of Electro

What is the driving force that moves electrons? Voltage
Is a cathode negative or positive? Negative
Is an anode negative or positive? Positive
Which way will the electrical current always move? Higher potential to lower potential (+ to -)
What is a volt? Unit of electrical force
What is voltage created by? Uneven distribution of charged particles such as Na, K, and Chloride
What are conductors? Materials in which ions or electrons move freely
What are examples of good conductors? Metals and water Body: Muscles, nerves
What are insulators? Charged particles that are not free to move or do not move easily
What are examples of insulators? Rubber or plastic Body: Fat
What is current? Movement of ions or electrons in response to a voltage
What is current directly proportional to? Magnitude of voltage
What is an ampere? Indicates the rate at which electrical current flows
What are examples of resistance? Skin Hair Fascia Scar tissue
What is capacitance? Degree to which electrical charge is stored (Charge gets stored in insulator so when current stops, charge has to flow to conductors)
What is impedance? Form of resistance but is frequently dependent
What can help decrease impedance? Gel or adhesive
What is Ohm's Law? Describes the relationship between resistance and flow of current Current = Voltage/Resistance
What is current inversely proportional to? Resistance
What happens to resistance and voltage when current increases? Increased current = decreased resistance Increased Current = increased voltage
What is DC? Continuous unidirectional flow of ions/electrons for at LEAST 1 second
What is the most common form of DC? Iontophoresis
What charges does DC current have? 1 positive and 1 negative
What is AC Uninterrupted bidirectional flow of ions/electrons
How often does AC have to change directions? At least 1 time per second
What is an example of AC? Russian
What is PC? Pulsed current: unidirectional OR bidirectional flow of ions/electrons that periodically stops briefly before the next electrical cycle
What is the pulse duration? Time from beginning of one phase to the end of another
What is the phase duration? Time it takes to go from zero back to zero
What is the interpulse interval? Time between each pulse (no current)
Is high volt always monophasic or biphasic? Monophasic
What is the decay time? Time it takes from 1 (max) back to zero
What is the rise time? Time it takes from 0 to 1 (max)
In monophasic what is the difference between phase and pulse duration? They are the same
What is the difference between monophasic and biphasic? Monophasic is either all above or all below Biphasic is both above and below
What is the amplitude? Magnitude of current or voltage
Do both monophasic and biphasic have peak amplitude? Peak-to-peak amplitude? Peak amplitude = both Peak-to-peak amplitude = only biphasic
What is the duty cycle? On versus off time
What is the phase charge? Charge within one phase of a pulse
What is the pulse charge? Cumulative charge of all phases within a single phase
What is a symmetrical biphasic current? Sum of current amplitude and duration of first phase is equal to the second
What is an asymmetrical biphasic current? Any difference in amplitude or duration between the first and second phases
How do you determine the net charge of a current? The pole that has greater area under the curve will determine the net charge
What happens at cathode when sodium joins water? Increases pH in localized area (alkaline reaction)
What happens at anode when chloride joints water? Decreases pH (acidic reaction)
Increased sodium does what to protein density and what does this mean? Decreases protein density and everything softens
Increased chloride does what to protein density and what does this mean? Increases protein density and everything hardens
Which type of current is electrothermal effects more of a concern with? DC
What is the Law of Thermodynamics? Energy is neither created nor destroyed but exchanged and lost as heat
What are the electrophysical effects? Ability to depolarize and propagate electrical signals which is what allows nerves and muscles to be excitable
At rest, are membranes permeable or impermeable to potassium? Sodium? Permeable to potassium Impermeable to sodium
What does the strength-duration curve tell us? Minimal amount of strength and duration needed to elicit a motor response
As amplitude increases, what happens to duration? Decreases
What is anything below the curve in the strength-duration curve considered and what does this mean? Subthreshold stimuli It won't depolarize or cause a contraction
What is anything above the curve in the strength-duration curve considered and what does this mean? Suprathreshold stimuli It can cause depolarization
Will anything to the left of the strength-duration curve cause depolarization? No
What is rheobase? Minimum strength of long duration capable of eliciting minimally detectable motor response
What is chronaxie? Duration of a stimulus 2x's the rheobase (capable of eliciting a minimal detectable motor response
What is the strength-duration curve used for? To assess healthiness of tissue
What is the time frame on the strength duration curve for healthy tissues? Denervated? Healthy = less than 1ms Denervated = prolonged chronaxie (10-20ms)
What are the 3 levels of response to electrical stimulation? Sensory Motor Noxious
How do sensory stimulations work? Low amplitudes to excite nerve
How do motor stimulations work? Increase amplitude and duration to get a motor response
How does noxious stimulations work? Create pain to treat pain
What is Russian Stim? AC Burst Current
What is the burst duration of Russian? 10 microseconds
How many bursts are delivered in Russian? 50 bursts/sec
What is the tx frequency for Russian? 50 Hz and 400 microseconds
What is high volt stim? Twin peaked monophasic PC
What is the electrode over the treatment area in high volt known as? Active or treatment electrode
What is the other electrode in high volt known as? Dispersive electrode
What are the three modes of high volt? Continuous Reciprocating Surge
What is high volt used for? Treatment of wound healing and/or tissue repair
What is IFC? Interference of two symmetrical by asynchronus currents
What is the frequency of high volt? 1-120 Hz
What is the therapeutic frequency for IFC? 1-200 Hz (80-120 or 80-150)
Why do we "sweep" when using IFC? To avoid accommodation
What is IFC mostly used for? Sensory - pain
When you are in a chronic pain state how might this change IFC? Might have to change to more of a motor (lower) frequency
What is the only quadripolar form of e-stim? IFC
What is the difference between pre-mod and IFC? Pre-mod uses 2 pads
What is Micro-current? Any current with an amplitude of less than 1 mA
What type of current is micro-current? DC or monophasic PC
What are biphasic PC? Group of waveforms used for muscle stimulation and pain modulation
Is a two pronged or three pronged plug better for e-stim and why? 3 pronged because they are grounded
Should you use extension cords with e-stim? No
What level mA are therapeutic? Dangerous? 1-15 mA = tingling sensation and muscle contraction 15-100 = painful electric shock
Created by: 1185240090
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