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Resp Pharm 1

Pediatric Dosage - Clarks Rule child dose = (Childs weight/150)x max adult dose
Pediatric Dosage - Frieds Rule Infant dose = (infants age in mths/150) x max adult dose
Solution Calculation percentage number of grams of solute dissolved in 100ml of solvent. Ex. 1gram/100ml or 1000mg/100 multiply Xmg/3ml.
Solution Calculation ratio ratio 1:1000 1gr/1000ml or 1000mg/1000ml multiply Xmg/3ml
Theraputic Index equation Toxic dose/effective dose ex 500/100 = 5 TI=5 5 x the dose to be toxic
Equipotent dosage 1 Aspirin dosage is 50mg 1 ibuprofen dosage is 200mg These equal the same.
Ceiling effect after a certain amount of drug there is no additional effect.
Efficacy the maximum effect a drug can provide
Potency the amount of drug required to produce an effect. the least amount is the most potent.
Drug Indications For which a drug is to improve -speed up heart rate on a brady patient. -effect-increase heart rate -indication-low heart rate
Antagonist -attaches on to receptors and has not response. "Blocker" -no effect at the site but has a patient effect.
Agonist attaches onto the receptor and has a response.
Pharmacodynamics How the drug effects the body
Parent Drug the molecules structure at the time it was given whatever form it was given, it has been metabolized.
Absorption process by which a drug enters circulation.
5 primary ways of drug administration -enteral-along the GI tract -parenteral-outside of GI tract -transdermal-patch -inhalation-aerosol -topical-ointment
Pharmacokinetics -what your body does to the drug -How quickly it absorbs, changes, distributes and eliminates
Bioavailability amount of drug in serum in its active form available for distribution to intended site of action.
Cholinergic Indications -tachycardia -constrict pupils -increase GI and urinary motility -to diagnose asthma by broncho constricting.
What are the drugs that inhibit AchE which allow ACH to accumulate and produce greater effect? "gets rid of AchE" Physostigmine (Neostigmine) Endrophonium (Tensilon) -indirect acting -not an agonist so it does NOT attach to the receptor.
What drugs act as an agonist on muscarinic receptors -Bethanechol -Pilocarpine -Methacholine
Acetycholine (Ach) is terminated by? ACH is made in the body Acetylcholinesterase (AchE)
Norepinephrine (NE) is terminated by? MAO, COMT, reuptake
Cholinergic receptor drugs Nicotinic and Muscarinic
Cholinergic receptors interact with? ACH
Adrenergic receptors interact with? Norepi (NE)
Neurotransmitter Chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell.
What do Sympathetics do increase heart rate
What do parasympathetics do decrease heart rate
Where can drugs be stored? fat cells and calcium
What are prodrugs? Inactive parent drug
What are the 2 routes of drug clearance? Kidney (renal) and Liver (hepatic)
receptors chemical components of cells with which drugs interact to product their effect.
What are the drug effects? changes we see clinically after administrating a drug. "physiological changes the drug produces"
What are drug indications? the conditions for which the drug is intended to improve.
Strength Expressed the amount of solute that is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent.
Solution percent the number of grams of solute dissolved in 100ml of solvent.
Clinical drop scale or gtts 20gtts = 1cc 10gtts = 0.5cc 8gtts = 0.4cc 6gtts = 0.3cc 4gtts = 0.2cc 2gtts = 0.1cc 1gtts = 0.05cc
Solution ratio Expressed as the number of grams of solute dissolved in the number of ml of solvent.
Autonomic involuntary structures. Smooth muscle (lungs), cardiac muscle and glands.
Cholinergic drugs drugs which produce effects similar to those produced by acetycholine.
Cholinergic effects any produced by parasympathetic nerves.
Anticholinergic drugs act as an antagonist on muscarinic receptors blocking ACH or cholinergic drugs.
Anticholinergic effects blocking parasympathetic so sympathetic effects are permitted to dominate.
Anticholinergic do not effect? blood vessels are not effected since there is no paraympathetic innervation to block.
Anticholinergic Indications -pre-operative to dry secretions -bradycardia -broncho dilate in asthma -counteract diarrhea -counteract urinary incontinence -dilate pupils for an eye exam
muscarinic sites Gland, GI, heart, eye
Cholinergic synapse Acetylcholine. Synthesis-within axonal ending from choline and acetate.
Adrenergic synapse Norepinephrine. synthesis-within axonal ending from tyrosine.
What are the adrenergic receptors Alpha, Beta1, Beta2
What do the Alpha receptors do mediate contraction of smooth muscle.
What are the Alpha receptors 1.Vascular smooth muscle - vasoconstriction 2.Radial muscle fibers of iris - mydriasis.
What do the Beta2 receptors do mediate relaxation of smooth muscles
What are the Beta2 receptors 1.Vascular smooth muscle - vasodilation. 2.Bronchial smooth muscle - bronchodilation.
What do the Beta1 receptors do mediate cardiac stimulation
What are the Beta1 receptors 1.Heart - increase rate and contract
What are adrenergic drugs Act as an agonist with sympathetic effects.
Adrenergic Indications for Alpha agonist. -hypotension - constricts vessels for blood to flow -respiratory congestion - upper resp -hemostasis - mucous membrane
Adrenergic Indications for Beta agonist. Beta1 - bradycardia, hypotension Beta2 - bronchospasms
Adrenergic Blockers act as antagonist. parasympathetic effects.
Adrenergic blockers Indications -angina pectoris - heart pain -tachycardia -hypertension
What happens automatically when giving an adrenergic beta blocker? Blood pressure will automatically come down.
What are the chemical structures of adrenergic drugs? Catechol, Resorcinol, Amine
Catechol a phenyl (benzene) ring with twho drydroxl groups in the 3 & 4 positions.
Resorcinol a phenyl (benzene) ring with two hydroxyl groups in the 3 & 5 positions.
Amine a compound containing nitrogen
catechol drugs -not used for bronchodilator, too much effect on the heart -can not take oraly -short acting drug -all are amines -destroyed by COMT
Resorcinol drugs -destroyed by MAO -medium acting drugs
Saligenins -long acting drugs
catechols are terminated quickly by COMT
Resorciinol are termimated by MAO
catecholmines are terminated by COMT and MAO
Saligenins are terminated by MAO
What drugs are more Beta2 specific and have greater duration. Resorcinol and Saligenins
What makes a drug more Beta2 specific and increases duration the longer the additive on the nitrogen or carbon.
What has the ability to decrease a patients serum potassium albuterol
Heart rate should not go above how many beats? 20
Beta2 side effects -CNS stimulation -skeletal tremors -hypotension -interference with physiological shunts.
Optical Isomerism same molecular formula but different molecular structure.
Racemic mixtures contain 50:50 mixture of Levo (R) and Dextro (L)
What isomer is the most active? Levo (R)
What isomer is the least active Dextro (L)
Created by: hkirkendall75