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Stack #1017897

Educational Psychology

QuestionAnswer
the study of learning and teaching Education Psychology
the study of teaching and learning with application to the instructional process pedagogy
doing things for a purpose intentionality
the degree to which teachers feel that their own efforts determine the success of their students teacher efficacy
evaluation of conclusions through logical and systematic examination of the problem, the evidence, and the solution. critical-thinking
explanation of the relationship between factors, such as the effects of alternative grading systems on student motivation. principle
a set of principles that explains and relates certain phenomena theory
a special program that is the subject of an experiment. treatment
something that can have more than one value variable
procedure used to test the effect of a treatment. experiment
selection by chance into different treatment groups; intended to ensure equivalence of the groups random assignment
experiment in which conditions are highly controlled laboratory experiment
the degree to which an experiment's results can be attributed to the treatment in question rather than other factors internal validity
experiment conducted under realistic conditions in which individuals are assigned by chance to receive different practical treatments or programs randomized field experiment
group that receives treatment during an experiment experimental group
group that receives no special treatment during an experiment control group
degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to real-life situations. external validity
experiment that studies a treatment's effect on one person or one group by contrasting behavior before, during, and after application of the treatment. single-care experiment
research into the relationships between variables as they naturally occur. correlation study
relationship which high levels of one variable correspond to high levels of another positive correlation
relationship in which high levels of one variable correspond to low levels of another negative correlation
variables for which there is no relationship between levels of one compared to another. uncorrelated variables
research study aimed at identifying and gathering detailed information about a topic of interest. descriptive research
research carried out by educators in their own classrooms of schools. action research
orderly and lasting growth, adaptation and change over the course of a lifetime. development
theories based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood(environmentally effected) continuous theories of development
theories describing human development as occurring through fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by inborn factors. (development is fixed ,non-environmental) discontinuous theories of development:
gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated cognitive development
mental patterns that guide behavior schemes
the process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation adaptation
understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes assimilation
modifying existing schemes to fit new situations accommodation
the process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences. equilibration
stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using their senses and motor skills sensorimotor stage
inborn automatic responses to stimuli reflexes
understanding that an object exists even if it is out of sight object permanence
stage at which children learn to represent things in the mind. preoperational stage
the concept that certain properties of an object (such as weight) remain the same regardless of changes in other properties (such as length) conservation
paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation. centration
the ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one's thinking to return to the starting point reversibility
believing that everyone views the world as you do egocentric
stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situations concrete operational stage
the meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information. inferred reality
arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume. seriation
a skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects transitivity
stage at which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and reasons logically. formal operational stage
instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children (rather than to their age alone) developmentally appropriate education
symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate, and solve problems. sign systems
the ability to think and solve problems without the help of others. self-regulation
children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as silent inner speech. private speech
level of development immediately above a person's present level. zone of proximal development
support for learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner. scaffolding
knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school. emergent literacy
any individuals whose physical, mental or behavioral performance is so different from the norm-either higher or lower-that additional services are needed to meet the individuals' needs Learners with exceptionalities
The limitation of a function, such as cognitive processing or physical or sensory abilities. Disability
A condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the physical environment, or the person's attitude Handicap
disorders that impede academic progress of people who are not mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed learning disabilities
A disorder characterized by difficulties maintaining attention because of a limited ability to concentrate; includes impulsive actions and hyperactive behavior attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD):
oral articulation problems, occurring most frequently among children in the early elementary school grades. speech disorders
impairments in one's ability to understand language or to express ideas in one's native language language disorders
exceptionalities characterized by problems with learning, interpersonal relationships, and control of feelings and behavior emotional and behavioral disorders
socioemotional and behavioral disorders that are indicated in individuals who, for example, are chronically disobedient or disruptive conduct disorders
a category of disability that significantly affects social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and educational performance autism
problems with the ability to receive information through the body's senses sensory impairments
degree of uncorrectable inability to see well vision loss
degree of deafness; uncorrectable inability to hear well hearing disabilities
exceptional intellectual ability; creativity or talent giftedness:
rapid promotion through advanced studies for students who are gifted or talented acceleration programs
programs in which assignments or activities are designed to broaden or deepen the knowledge of students who master classroom lessons quickly enrichment programs
programs that address the needs of students with mental, emotional, or physical disabilites special education
a program tailored to the needs of a learner with exceptionalities. individualized education program (IEP)
process in which professionals work cooperatively to provide educational services collaboration
policies in which struggling children are given intensive assistance and evaluated for possible special-education services only if they fail to respond response to intervention
use effective teaching methods and to broaden the range of students who can succeed without any special interventions Tier 1 (Prevention)
Immediate Intervention: provide students with help, targeted at their needs, rather than considering Special Education. The student would receive one on one tutoring or small group help. Tier 2 (Immediate Intervention)
for student who have not made progress in Tiers 1 and 2. These children are at risk for special education or retention. This Tier is similar to Tier 2 except that more time is spent giving the child help. Tier 3 (Intensive Intervention)
arrangement whereby students who have disabilities or are at risk receive all their instruction in a general education setting; support services are brought to the student full inclusion
the language, attitudes, ways of behaving, and other aspects of life that characterize a group of people. culture
a measure of prestige within a social group that is most often based on income and education socioeconomic status (SES):
a group within a larger society that sees itself as having a common history, social and cultural heritage, and traditions, often based on race, religion, language, or national identity. ethnic group
a history, culture, and sense of identity shared by a group of people. ethnicity
visible genetic characteristics of individuals that cause them to be seen as members of the same broad group race
an ethnic or social group, members of which are less likely than other groups to experience economic security or power. underrepresented group
In the US, native speakers of any language other than English. language minority
possessing limited mastery of English limited English proficient (LEP)
Students in U.S. schools who are not native speakers of English English learners (EL)
Instructional program for students who speak little or no English in which some instruction is provided in the native language. bilingual education
education that teaches the value of cultural diversity multicultural education
Teachers' use of examples, data, and other information from a variety of cultures content integration
Helping students understand how the knowledge we take in is influenced by our origins and points of view. knowledge construction
a critical goal of multicultural education; involves development of positive relationships and tolerant attitudes among students of different backgrounds. prejudice reduction
teaching techniques that facilitate the academic success of students from different ethnic and social class groups. equity pedagogy
a school culture in which the institution's organization and practices are conducive to the academic and emotional growth of all students. empowering school culture
socially approved behavior associated with one gender as opposed to the other. sex-role behavior
stereotypical views and differential treatment of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other gender bias
general aptitude for learning, often measured by the ability to deal with abstractions and to solve problems intelligence
An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100 intelligence quotient (IQ)
in Gardner's theory of intelligence, a person's nine separate abilities: logical/mathematical, linguistic, musical, naturalist, spatial, bodily/knesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and existential multiple intelligence
interaction of individual difference in learning with particular teaching methods. aptitude-treatment interaction
Environmental conditions that activate the senses stimuli
A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response unconditioned stimulus
a behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus unconditioned response
stumuli that have no effect on a particular response neutral stimuli
a previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus conditioned stimulus
the process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response classical conditioning
the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior operant conditioning
An apparatus developed by B.F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant conditioning. Skinner Box
pleasant of unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors consequences
a pleasureable consequence that maintains or increases a bahavior reinforcer
food,water, or other consequence that satisfies a basic need primary reinforcer
a consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer
pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior positive reinforcer
release from an unpleasant situation given to stregthen behavior negative reinforcer
Rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activites Premack Principle
behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward. intrinsic reinforcers
praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not do otherwise extrinsic reinforcers
unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior punsihment
an unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape aversive stimulus
an aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behaviour will occur again. presentation punishment
withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behaviour, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur removal punishment
procedure of charging misbehaving students against their free time or other privileges response cost
procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced time out
explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior behavioral learning theories
learning theories that emphasize not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action social learning theories
explanations of learning that focus on mental processes cognitive learning theories
a change in an individual that results from experience learning
Created by: lookinazzlilboy7