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Chapter 11

Essentials of Psychology

QuestionAnswer
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Architect of the first major theory of personality, called psychoanalytic theory
Personality The relatively stable constellation of psychological characteristics and behavioral patterns that account for our individuality and consistency over time
Psychoanalytic Theory Freud's theory of personality that holds that personality and behavior are shaped by unconscious forces and conflicts
3 Levels of Consciousness The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious
Conscious To Freud, the part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness.
Preconscious To Freud, the part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention
Unconscious To Freud, the part of the mind that lies outside the range of ordinary awareness and that holds troubling or unacceptable urges, impulses, memories and ideas.
The 3 Structures of Personality Id, Ego, and Superego
Id Freud's term for the psychic structure existing in the unconscious that contains our baser animal drives and instinctual impulses
Ego Freud's term for the psychic structure that attempts to balance the instinctual demands of the id with social realities and expectations
Superego Freud's term for the psychic structure that corresponds to an internal moral guardian or conscience
Pleasure Principle In Freudian theory, a governing principle of the id that is based on demand for instant gratification without regard to social rules or customs
Reality Principle In Freudian theory, a governing principle of the ego that takes into account what is practical and acceptable in satisfying basic needs
Name the 8 Major Defense Mechanisms in Psychodynamic Theory Repression, Denial, Reaction Formation, Rationalization, Projection, Sublimation, Regression, and Displacement
Repression a type of defense mechanism involving motivated forgetting of anxiety-evoking material
Denial a defense mechanism involving the failure to recognize a threatening impulse or urge
Reaction Formation a defense mechanism involving behavior that stands in opposition to one's true motives and desires so as to prevent conscious awareness of them
Rationalization a defense mechanism involving the use of self-justification to explain away unacceptable behavior, impulses, or ideas
Projection a defense mechanism involving the projection of one's own unacceptable impulses, wishes or urges onto another person
Sublimation a defense mechanism involving the channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially sanctioned behaviors or interests
Regression a defense mechanism in which an individual, usually under high levels of stress, reverts to a behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development
Displacement a defense mechanism in which an unacceptable sexual or aggressive impulse is transferred to an object or person that is safer or less threatening than the original object of the impulse
The 5 Stages of Personality Development Oral (Birth to 12 to 18 months), Anal (18 months to 3 years), Phallic (3 to 6 years), Latency (6 years to puberty), Genital (puberty to adulthood)
Oral Stage the first stage of psychosexual development, during which the infant seeks sexual gratification through oral stimulation (sucking, mouthing, and biting)
Anal Stage the second stage of psychosexual development, during which sexual gratification is centered on processes of elimination (retention and release of bowel contents)
Phallic Stage the third stage of psychosexual development, marked by erotic attention on the phallic region (penis in boys, clitoris in girls) and the development of the Oedipus Complex
Latency Stage the fourth stage of psychosexual development, during which sexual impulses remain latent or dormant
Genital Stage the fifth and final stage of psychosexual development, which begins around puberty and corresponds to the development of mature sexuality and emphasis on procreation
Anal-Retentive Personality a personality type characterized by messiness, lack of self-discipline, and carelessness
Created by: max67257