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Psych Ch 5

cognition refers to... mental processes that we use to acquire, retain, and use knowledge.
thinking order to... mental manipulation of information, ...organize information, solve problems, reason about things, make decisions, and communicate.
intelligence is the ability... apply knowledge in order to deal effectively with one’s environment.
communication involves methods of conveying information
Language can be defined as a system for combining a finite number of arbitrary symbols into an infinite number of meaningful statements
example of a finite number of arbitrary symbols would be individual letters
phoneme is the...and an example would be... smallest unit of sound that can distinguish one word from vs pen
American English is typically considered to be composed of between 36-44 phonemes
linguists recognize several features that are considered unique to language and that distinguish it from other forms of communication such as... , syntax, generativity, and displacement
semantics is the aspect of language that has to do with meaning.
syntax describe the rules for combining words in a language
generativity means that we can generate or create new things that have never before been said.
displacement describes the unique ability that languages give us to communicate about things that are displaced or separated from us in time and space
overextending would be...underextending would be... a child calling every moving thing car...a child only calling his dog a dog
telegraphic speech is... short phrases used by children
critical period is... sensitive time during which a person or organism is particularly receptive to input from the environment.
the critical period for vision is...and for language it is... 6 months...until puberty
linguistic relativity is how language and thinking are related. The most extreme version of this idea argues that without language, thought is not possible. A milder version suggests that the language we speak influences the way we perceive and understand the world
categorization is the ability to organize similar information together
concepts are abstract mental representations for objects or ideas
sufficient means that as long as that feature is present, the object is a member of that category
according to the definitional approach to categorization... we store a similar list in our minds, and then, when we encounter an object we can compare them to this list and, if they match, we would consider them members of that category.
formal concepts can be conceptualized using this definitional approach. These are concepts that have a strict definition like a circle, triangle, or prime number
natural concepts cannot be given an absolute definition, and there isn’t a true list of necessary and sufficient features by which to define them
a prototype is the best instance of a category and compare all future items we encounter to it
an exemplar is an actual example of that category which is stored in your memory.
problem solving is the ability to reach a goal that is not readily apparent, including different approaches to solving problems, things that help, and mistakes we make in the process.
trial and error involves trying and testing different possibilities until a successful solution is reached
algorithms are step-by-step strategies that, if followed correctly, will guarantee you a solution to the problem.
heuristics are problem-solving techniques that are like shortcuts to a solution.
examples of heuristics would be intuition and insight
intuition happens when you come to a solution to a problem without realizing how you got there.
insight occurs when you come to a solution all of a sudden, often without realizing that you were about to get there
a mental set is the most natural approach which is to try a method that has worked in the past.
One type of mental set is known as functional fixedness which occurs when we fail to see new uses for an object
single feature model, involves choosing between alternatives and basing the decision on only one important aspect
elimination by aspects means discard options by considering each feature one at a time.
in the additive model you... make a list of important features, rate each option and add up the scores to see which option has the highest score
representativeness heuristic is used when we rely on probabilities when making a decision.
availability heuristic is When you base your decision on the number of similar examples you can bring to mind
two common biases are belief and confirmation bias
belief bias occurs when we make decisions based on how believable we think the result is.
according to the confirmation bias we tend to look for evidence that reinforces or confirms a decision or rule, but do not look for exceptions to the rule.
framing effect means we tend to make decisions based on how the question is asked
distribution of intelligence shows that intelligence is normally distributed in a population. This means that half of the population is above average and exactly as many are below average.
the g-factor or...attributes general intelligence...intelligence to be a singular factor
s factors are various specific mental abilities
multiple intelligences takes into account the fact that different skills and abilities are valued in different cultures as well as that, to excel in a field, you must possess various skills that are not adequately measured by traditional intelligence tests
verbal ability tests might include of vocabulary, reading comprehension, and reasoning.
Non-verbal ability has been assessed through tests of speed of processing, memory capacity, and spatial ability
There are two main factors that come into play when we consider how we got the way we are heredity and environment
heritability of intelligence is the variation in intelligence due to genetic factors
reaction range means your genes provide you with a possibility or the opportunity of what you could become
Created by: handrzej
Popular Psychology sets




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