Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

PSY 201 Ch. 5-8

Consciousness One's subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity
Circadian Rhythm The regulation of biological cycles into regular patterns
REM Sleep Stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movement, dreaming, and paralysis of motor systems
Stages of Sleep
Stage 1 Theta Waves, REM occurs here. Light sleep. Might see fantastical images or shapes. Sensation of fallings might occur
Stage 2 Breathing becomes more regular, become less sensitive to external stimulation. Fully asleep, Occasional activity called sleep spindles, and waves called K-Complex occur.
Stage 3&4 Large Delta Waves, Often called Slow-Wave Sleep. People are very hard to wake up in this stage
REM Sleep Occurs again right before waking up
Dreaming Products of an altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused with reality
Insomnia Disorder characterized by an inability to sleep
Narcolepsy Disorder in which people experience sleepiness during normal waking hours, sometimes go limp and collapse
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Disorder in which a person, while asleep, stops breathing because his/her throat closes. Condition results in frequent awakenings during the night
Sleep Deprivation People find it nearly impossible to perform boring or mundane tasks. Long sleep deprivation causes mood swings and decreases cognitive performance
Hypnosis Social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action
Generalization Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
Discrimination Differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Positive Reinforcement Administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior's being repeated
Negative Reinforcement Removal of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior's being repeated
Positive Punishment Administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring
Negative Punishment Removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring
UR-Unconditioned Response Response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex
US-Unconditioned Stimulus Stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning
CS-Conditioned Stimulus Stimulus that elicits a response only after leaning has taken place
CR-Conditioned Response Response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned
Acquisition Gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Extinction Process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the CS is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery Process in which a previously extinguished response re-emerges after the presentation of the CS
Classical Conditioning Type of learned response; a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response
Operant Conditioning Learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
Shaping Operant Conditioning technique, consists of reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
Habituation Decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a non-threatening stimulus
Sensitization Increase in behavioral response after exposure to a threatening stimulus
VR-Variable Ratio Takes little time. Example-slot machines pay off on average every few pulls, but you never know which pull
FR-Fixed Ratio Takes a little longer than VR. Example-being paid each time you complete a chore
VI-Variable Interval Takes longer than FR. Example-listening to the radio to hear your favorite song, but you don't know when you will hear it
FI-Fixed Interval Takes longest. Example-When quizzes are schedule at fixed intervals, students only study when the quiz is administered (grade is reinforcer)
Observational Learning Acquisition or modification of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance
Chunking Organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember
Encoding Processing of information so that it can be stored
Storage The retention of encoded representations over time
Retrieval The act of recalling or remembering stored information
Flashbulb Memories Vivid episodic memories for the circumstances in which people first learned of a surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing event
Encoding Specificity Principle Idea that any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience
Episodic Memory Memory for one's personal past experiences
Semantic Memory Memory for knowledge about the world
Retro-Active Interference When new information inhibits the ability to remember old information
Pro-Active Interference When prior information inhibits the ability to remember old information
Suggestibility The development of biased memories from misleading information
Heuristics Shortcuts; used to reduce amount of thinking that is needed to make decisions
Algorithms Step by step procedures
Schemas Cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information
Intelligence Ability to use knowledge to reason, make decisions, make sense of events, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly and adapt to environmental challenges
Fluid Intelligence Intelligence that reflects the ability to process information, particularly in novel or complex circumstances
Crystalized Intelligence Intelligence that reflects both the knowledge one acquires through experience and the ability to use that knowledge
Achievement Test Test designed to determine what an individual has learned
Aptitude Test Test to predict a person's future performance
Cultural Bias in IQ Tests May penalize people for belonging to particular cultures or particular groups
Functional Fixedness Tendency to think about things and how they normally function
Decision Making Attempting to make the best alternative among several options
Attention Ability to direct something in ourself
SQRRR 1.Survey 2.Question 3.Read 4.Rectie 5.Review
Created by: Hardin36
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards