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Psych 101 Monika

Chapter 1.3 powerpoint

Psychology is... scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What does psychology do? prevent possible biases from leading to faulty observations (precise and careful measurement)
What is limited as tools for knowledge? intuition and common sense
What are the three elements to scientific attitude? curiosity, skepticism, and humility
What is the scientific method? system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced
Steps of scientific method? 1.Perceive the question. 2. Form a hypothesis – tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on obs3rvations. 3. Test the hypothesis. 4. Draw conclusions. 5. Report your results so that others can try to replicate
What are the five types of descriptive methods? naturalistic observations, laboratory observation, case study, surveys, and finding relationships
What is the naturalistic observation method? watching animals or humans behave in their normal habitat
Specify the advantages of the naturalistic observation method? realistic picture of behavior
Specify the disadvantages of the naturalistic observation method? Observer effect, observer bias
What is the observer effect? tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
How can you reduce observer effect? by using the participation observation method where the observer becomes a participant in the group that is being observed
What is observer bias? tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
How can you reduce observer bias? by using the blind observation method where there are blind observers whom don't know what the research question is
What is a laboratory observation? watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting
Specify the advantages to laboratory observations? you have control over the experiment and allows for the use of specialized equipment
Specify the disadvantages to laboratory observations? artificial situation that may result in artificial behavior
What do descriptive methods lead to? formation of testable hypothesis
What is a case study? study of one individual in great detail
Specify the advantages of a case study? tremendous amount of detail
Specify the disadvantages of a case study? cannot apply to others
What is one of the famous case studies? Phineas Gage
What are surveys? researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic under study *given to a representative sample
Specify the advantages to surveys? data from large numbers of people and you get to study covert behaviors
Specify the disadvantages to surveys? have to ensure your sample is representative of the population and people are not always accurate (courtesy bias)
What does correlation mean? a measure of the relationship between two variables
What is a variable? anything that can change or vary
What is a correlation coefficient? direction of the relationship and strength of the relationship
Positive correlation coefficient? variables are related tin the same direction
Negative correlation coefficient? variables are related in the opposite direction
Correlation does or doesn't prove causation? DOES NOT
Low self-esteem could cause... depression
Depression could cause... low self-esteem
Distressing events or biological disposition could cause... low self-esteem AND depression
What is the relationship between height and temperament? positive correlation r=+.63
What is behavior related to psychology? outward, or overt actions and reactions (what we say or do)
What are mental processes in relation to psychology? internal, covert activity of our minds (what we perceive, think and feel)
Specify psychology's four goals description, explanation, prediction, and control
What is structuralism? focused on structure or the basic elements of the mind
Who is Wilhelm Wundt? psychologist in Germany whom developed the technique of objective introspection
Define objective introspection process of objectively examining and measuring one's thoughts and mental activities (introspection)
Who is Edward Titchener? Wundt's student whom brought structuralism to America
When did structuralism die out? in the early 1900s
What is functionalism? how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play.
Who proposed and influenced functionalism? it was proposed by William James and it was influenced by Charles Darwin
What is Gestalt psychology? "good figure" psychology
Who started Gestalt psychology? it started with Wertheimer
What psychology is Gestalt psychology apart of? cognitive psychology
What is cognitive psychology? a field not only focusing on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving
What is psychoanalysis? the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
Specify the disorders Freud's patients suffered from nervous disorders
What is behaviorism? the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only (must be directly seen or measured)
who proposed behaviorism? John B. Watson
Who's work was behaviorism based on? Ivan Pavlov who demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned (learned)
Watson believed that phobias were... learned
List the seven modern perspectives psychodynamic, behaviorial, humanistic, cognitive, sociocultural, biopsychological, and evolutionary
What is the psychodynamic perspective? modern version of psychoanalysis - more focused on development of self and discovery of others
What is the behavioral perspective? operant conditioning of voluntary behavior
What is the humanistic perspective? people have free will, freedom to do what they choose. it emphasized human potential and being the best you could be
Define self-actualization achieving one's full potential or actual self
What is the cognitive perspective? focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem-solving, and learning
What is the socioculture perspective? focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
What is the biopsychological perspective? attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body.
What is the evolutionary perspective? focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
What is a psychiatrist? a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
What is a psychologist? a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology - can do counseling, teaching, and research
Created by: 1500117909