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BBC Exam 2

What is a "pulled groin"? Strain, stretching, and possible tearing of the proximal attachments of the anteromedial thigh muscles (usually the flexor and adductors)
What is rider's strain? Muscle strains of the adductor longus from horseback riding producing pain
Where can you find the femoral pulse? Midway between the ASIS and pubic symphysis
What is the usual site for a femoral hernia? Femoral ring
Why are femoral hernias more common in women? Because of their wider pelvis
MOI for avulsion of the ischial tuberosity in a hamstring strain? Forcible flexion of hip with knee extended
What is piriformis syndrome? Compression of sciatic nerve by piriformis causing pain
In regards to the sciatic nerve, what is the "safe side" and what is the "dangerous side"? Safe side = Lateral side Dangerous side = Medial side
What quadrant is it safe to give gluteal injections in? Superolateral quadrant or anterolateral part of thigh (TFL)
Which direction do popliteal abscesses spread? Superiorly and inferiorly
How do you find the popliteal pulse? With person in prone with knee flexed to relax popliteal fascia and hamstrings. Best felt in inferior part of fossa
What is a popliteal aneurysm? abnormal dilation of all or part of the popliteal artery
How can popliteal aneurysms be distinguished from other masses? By palpable pulsations and abnormal arterial sounds
Is injury to the tibial nerve common? Why or why not? No, because of its deep and protected position in the popliteal fossa
What would severance of the tibial nerve produce? Paralysis of the flexor muscles of the leg and intrinsic muscles of the sole of the foot
Where would loss of sensation occur if the tibial nerve was damaged? Sole of the foot
What action would people be unable to do if the tibial nerve was damaged? PF ankle or flex toes
Is genu varum associated with a small or large Q-angle? Small
Is genu valgum associated with a small or large Q-angle? Large
Which direction does the patella usually dislocate? Lateral
What is another name for patellofemoral syndrome and why? Runners knee - results from excessive running, especially downhill
What is patellofemoral syndrome? Pain resulting from repetitive microtrauma caused by abnormal tracking of the patella relative to the patellar surface of the femur
What is the most common knee injury in contact sports? Ligament sprains, when foot is fixed in the ground
Which meniscus is more susceptible to tearing and why? Medial because it is less mobile
Do meniscal repairs always need to be done? No - because of the generous blood supply to this area
What is arthroscopy? Endoscopic examination that allows visualization of the interior of the knee joint cavity with minimal disruption of the tissue
What is joint effusion? Escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels, results in increased amounts of fluid in the joint cavity
What three bony points are used as landmarks for needle insertion while aspirating a knee? Gerdy's tubercle Lateral epicondyle of femur Apex of patella
Which bursa of the knee can be ruptured by friction between skin and patella? Prepatellar bursa
Which bursa of the knee can be injured by excessive friction between the skin and tibial tuberosity? Subcutaneous infrapatellar bursa
which bursa injury results in edema between the patellar ligament and the tibia, superior to the tibial tuberosity? Deep infrapatellar bursa
Which bursa may be injured from abrasions or penetrating wounds? Suprapatellar bursitis
What is another name for popliteal cyst? Baker cysts
What are popliteal cysts? Abnormal fluid filled sacs of synovial membrane in the region of the popliteal fossa
What is a popliteal cyst almost always a complication of? Chronic knee joint effusion
What are shin splints? Edema and pain the area of the distal 2/3 of the tibia
What do shin splints result from? Result from repetitive microtrauma of TA which causes small tears in the periosteum covering the shaft of the tibia and/or fleshy attachments to overlying deep fascia of the leg
What features are unique about the human foot? Medial migration of distal attachment of fibularis longus across sole of foot and fibularis tertius attachment to the base of the 5th MT
What nerve winds subcutaneously around the fibular neck? Common fibular nerve
What is ski boot syndrome? Compression of deep fibular nerve
What can be responsible for recurrent stretching of the superficial fibular nerve causing pain along the lateral side of the leg and dorsum of ankle and foot? Chronic ankle sprains
What is the fabella and where is it located? Sesamoid bone in the proximal portion of the lateral head of the gastroc
What nerve roots does the calcaneal tendon reflex test? S1 and S2
What is another name for a gastroc strain? Tennis leg
What is calcaneal bursitis caused by? Excessive friction on the bursa as the tendon continuously slides over it
If someone has an accessory soleus where does it appear? As a distal belly medial to the calcaneal tendon
Where can the posterior tibal pulse be palpated? Between the psoterior surface of the medial malleolus and the medial border of the calcaneal tendon
What position should you have the patient in to palpate the posterior tibial pulse and why? Inversion of the foot to relax the flexor retinaculum
When is intermittent claudication present? During walking, but disappears after rest
What is intermittent claudication characterized by? Leg pain and cramps
What is is intermittent claudication caused by? Narrowing or occlusion of leg arteries
Where can point tenderness be felt with plantar fasciitis? Porximal attachment of the plantar aponeurosis to the medial tubercle of the calcaneus and on the medial surface of this bone
What actions cause pain with plantar fasciitis? Passive extension of the great toe and DF of ankle and/or WB
What can a contusion of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle be confused with and why? A severely sprained ankle because a contusion and tearing of these muscle fibers result in a hematoma that produces edema anteromedial to the lateral malleolus
What nerve roots are associated with the plantar reflex? L4, L5, S1, S2
If one has medial plantar nerve entrapment where is a good place to check this? Medial side of the sole and in the region of the navicular tuberosity
What position should the patient be in to feel the dorsalis pedis pulse? Slight DF
What are the 5 P's of acute arterial occlusion? Pain Pallor Paresthesia Paralysis Pulselessness
What vasculature can a puncture wound to the sole of the foot affect? Deep plantar arch and it's branches
What is the foot deformity caused by pressure from footwear and DJD Hallux valgus
What is hallux valgus characterized by? Lateral deviation of great toe
What is the bursa called that forms from the pressure and friction against the shoe? Bunion
What are corns? Inflamed areas of thick skin
What is the foot deformity in which the proximal phalanx is permanently and markedly dorsiflexed (hyperextended) at the MTPJ and middle phalanx strongly PF at PIP? (Similar to swan neck deformity of hand) Hammer Toe
What foot deformity is characterized by hyperextension of MTPJ and flexion of the DIP? Claw toes
What is another name for flatfeet? Pes Planus
Is pes planus normal in children under three? Yes
What does it mean to have flexible flatfeet? Flat, lacking a medial arch when WB but normal in appearance when NWB
What does it mean to have rigid flatfeet? Flat even when NWB
What is flexible flatfeet a result of? Loose or degenerated intrinsic ligaments (inadequate passive arch support)
What is rigid flatfeet a result of? Bone deformity
What are acquired flatfeet (fallen arches)? Secondary to dysfunction of TP (dynamic arch support) owing to trauma, degeneration with age or denervation
What is another name for clubfoot? Talipes equinovarus
What is the foot deformity that refers to a foot that is twisted out of position? Clubfoot
What are all types of clubfeet caused by? They are congenital
Who is clubfoot more present in? Boys
How is clubfoot characterized? Foot is inverted, ankle PF, forefoot adducted
Where is a person with clubfoot experiencing shortness and tightness of muscles? Medial side and posterior aspect of foot and ankle
Created by: 1185240090



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