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SPED Book Chapter 6

Highlighted Vocabulary Terms in Chapter 6

Speech Disorder Refers to difficulty in producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality (for example, a hoarse voice) or fluency of speech, often referred to as stuttering
Language Disorder Is difficulty in receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and information
Receptive Language Disorder Is characterized by difficulty in receiving or understanding information
Expressive Language Disorder Is characterized by difficulty in formulating ideas and information
Cleft Palate/Lip Describes a condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip
Dialect Is a regional variation of a language, as when someone speaks English using terms or pronunciations common only in that region
Speech Is the oral expression of language. The disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations
Language Is a structured, shared, rule-governed symbolic system for communicating
Phonology Is the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words
Phonemes Are individual speech sounds and how they are produced, depending on their placement in a syllable or word
Morphology Is the system that governs the structure of words
Morpheme Is the smallest meaningful unit of speech
Syntax Provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences
Semantics Refers to the meaning of what is expressed
Pragmatics Refers to the use of communication in context
Social Interaction Theories Emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions
Articulation Is a speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds
Substitutions Occur when a person substitutes one sound for another, as when a child substitutes /d/ for the voiced /th/ ("doze" for "those"), /t/ for /k/ ("tat" for "cat"), or /w/ for /r/ ("wabbit" for "rabbit")
Omissions Occur when a child leaves a phoneme out of a word
Additions Occur when students place a vowel between two consonants
Distortions Are modifications of the production of a phoneme in a word
Apraxia Is a motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech
Pitch Is affected by the tension and size of the vocal folds, the health of the larynx, and the location of the larynx
Duration Is the length of time any speech sound requires
Intensity (Loudness or softness) is based on the perception of the listener and is determined by the air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds
Resonance Is determined by the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth, and nose
Hypernasality Is when air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than /m/, /n/, and /ng/
Hypnonasality Occurs because air cannot pass through the nose and comes through the mouth instead
Fluency Is the rate and rhythm of speaking
Specific Language Impairment Describes a language disorder with no identifiable cause in a person with apparently normal development in all other areas
Organic Disorders Are those caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person
Functional Disorders Are those with no identifiable organic or neurological cause
Congenital Disorder Is a disorder that occurs at or before birth
Acquired Disorder Is a disorder that occurs well after birth
Oral Motor Exam Is examination of the appearance, strength, and range of motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw
Bilingual Refers to someone who uses two languages equally well
Bidialectal Refers to someone who uses two variations of a language
System for Augmenting Language (SAL) Focuses on augmented input of language
Created by: aaaronia