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UP10 Chapter 2

Psychological Research

Scientific Method The approach through which psychologists systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest.
Theories Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest.
Hypothesis A prediction, stemming from a theory, stated in a way that allows it to be tested.
Operational Definition The translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed.
Archival Research Research in which existing data, such as census documents, college records, and newspaper clippings, are examined to test a hypothesis.
Naturalistic Observation Research in which an investigator simply observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation.
Survey Research Research in which people chosen to represent a larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes.
Case Study An in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people.
Variables Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way.
Correlational Research Research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated, or "correlated."
Experiment The investigation of the relationship between two (or more) variables by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation.
Experimental Manipulation The change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation.
Treatment The manipulation implemented by the experimenter.
Experimental Group Any group participating in an experiment that receives a treatment.
Control Group A group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment.
Independent Variable The variable that is manipulated by and experimenter.
Dependent Variable The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable.
Random Assignment to Condition A procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or "conditions" on the basis of change and chance alone.
Significant Outcome Meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypothesis.
Replicated Research Research that is repeated, sometimes using other procedures, settings, and groups of participants, to increase confidence in prior findings.
Informed Consent A document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve.
Experimental Bias Factors that distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment.
Placebo A false treatment, such as a pill, "drug," or other substance, without any significant chemical properties or active ingredients.
Created by: lizhopper2