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Psychology CH 2

Research Methods

An approach to the examination of arguments based on skepticism, logical analysis, and insistence upon the importance of empirical evidence. Critical Thinking
A science that obtains evidence by experience or experimentation. Empirical Science
An approach to acquiring or confirming knowledge that is based on gathering measurable evidence through observation and experimentation. Evidence is often obtained to test hypotheses. Scientific Method
Within the science of psychology, a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is testable through research. Hypothesis
An association or relationship among variable, as we might find between height and weight or between study habits and school grades. Correlation
A source of bias that may occur in research findings when participants are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study. Selection Factor
Repeat, reproduce, copy. Replicate
Part of a population. Sample
A complete group of organisms or events (sample). Population
To extend from the particular to the general; to apply observations based on a sample to a population. Generalize
A sample drawn so that each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate. Random Sample
A sample drawn so that identified subgroups in the population are represented proportionately in the sample (in layers, %'s). Stratified Sample
A source of bias or error in research reflecting the prospect that people who offer to participate in research studies differ systematically from people who do not. Volunteer Bias
A carefully drawn biography that may be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and psychological tests. Case Study
A method of scientific investigation in which a large sample of people answer questions about their attitudes or behaviors. Survey
A scientific method in which organisms are observed in their natural environments. Naturalistic Observation
A mathematical method of determining whether one variable increases or decreases as another variable increases or decreases. For example, there is a correlation between intelligence test scores and grades in school. Correlational Method
A number between +1.00 and -1.00 that expresses the strength and direction (positive or negative) of the relationship between two variables. Correlation Coefficient
A relationship between variables in which one variable increases as the other also increases. Positive Correlation
A relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases. Negative Correlation
In experiments, groups whose members obtain the treatment "geniea pigs". Experimental Groups
In experiments, groups whose members do not obtain the treatment, while other conditions are held constant. Control Groups
A bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine (sugar pills). Placebo
In experimental terminology, being unaware of whether one has received a treatment or not. Blind
A condition in which a researcher expects or desires a certain outcome in a research study, possibly affecting the outcome. Experimenter Bias
A study in which neither the participants nor the observers know who has received the treatment. Double-blind Study
Moral; referring to one's system of deriving standards for determining what is moral. Ethical
A participant's agreement to participate in research after receiving information about the purposes of the study and the nature of the treatments. Informed Consent
To elicit information about a complete procedure. Debrief
A concept with many meanings, including sensory awareness of the world outside, direct inner awareness of one's thoughts and feelings, personal unity, and the waking state. Consciousness
The focus of one's consciousness on a particular stimulus. Selective Attention
Knowledge of one's own thoughts, feelings, and memories without the use of sensory organs. Direct Inner Awareness
In psychodynamic theory, descriptive of material that is not in awareness but can be brought into awareness by focusing one's attention. Preconscious
In psychodynamic theory, descriptive of ideas and feelings that are not available to awareness. Unconscious
In psychodynamic theory, the automatic (unconscious) ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas, impulses, or images from awareness (intentionally forgetting). Repression
The deliberate, or conscious, placing of certain ideas, impulses, or images out of awareness. Suppression
Descriptive of bodily processes, such as growing hair, of which we cannot become conscious. We may "recognize" that our hair is growing but cannot directly experience the biological process. Nonconscious
Referring to cycles that are connected with the 24 hour period of the Earth's rotation, AKA our "body clock." Circadian Rhythm
Rapid low-amplitude brain waves that have been linked to feelings of relaxation. Alpha Waves
The first four stages of sleep. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, which have been linked to dreaming. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep
Slow brain waves sometimes accompanied by a hypnagogic state. Theta Waves
The drowsy interval between waking and sleeping characterized by a brief, hallucinatory, dreamlike experiences. Hypnagogic State
Strong, slow brain waves usually emitted during stage 3 and 4 sleep. Delta Waves
Burst of brain activity only seen in stage 2 of NREM sleep. Sleep Spindles
Created by: SSalvage139