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CMM UNIT 1

communications unit 1

QuestionAnswer
arrangement structuring of ideas and materials in a speech.
ceremonial also know as epideictic, could be from presenting or accepting an award, introducing someone, delivering a eulogy, or commemorating an event. This type of speech focuses on the present.
communication the way an audience interacts in order to build connections whereby they can understand each other and recognize common interests
critical thinking the ability to form and defend your own judgements rather than blindly accepting or instantly rejecting what you hear or read.
deliberative most speeches are primarily this, such as making an oral report, delivering sales representation, advocating a policy, or refuting another persons’ arguments. This type of speech usually focuses on the future and what should be done
delivery the presentation of the speech. skillful delivery involves the effective use of voice, gesture, facial expression, physical movement, and visual aids.
entertaining stimulates a sense of community by celebrating common bonds among speaker and listeners
exigence a problem that cannot be avoided but that can be solved, or at least managed, through the development of an appropriate message.
extemporaneous presentation referring to an outline during a speech, not memorized word for word but have a clear sense of the ideas and how to organize them
facts statements that, in theory, can be verified by someone else ie. if somebody says the population has doubled in 25 years, it can be verified with population statistics.
feedback responses from the audience that signal how they are reacting to what you say
forensic The third category of speech occasion which is concerned with rendering judgments about events in the past.
identification when a speaker tries to find common ground between what they know about the audience and what they want to say
informing provides listeners with new information or ideas
invention generation of materials for the speech
manuscript presentation reading a written script for a speech
memory giving a speech from memory, was at one time important
opinions subjective statements that presumably are based on experience or expertise ie. The world’s population is growing too fast.
persuading influences listeners’ attitudes and behavior; either to strengthen existing beliefs or to support new ones
plagiarism never present somebody else’s ideas as your own, specify who developed the ideas or words you present, paraphrase, use several sources rather than just one
public designates two things 1. speaking that is open and accessible by others. 2. speaking is public when it affects people beyond the immediate audience.
public forum years ago, a forum was an actual place, but today it is an imagined “space” that exists whenever people have the freedom to exchange ideas about matters that affect themselves and others.
rhetoric the study of how messages affect people
rhetorical situation a situation in which people’s understanding can be changed through messages
situation specific context in which the speech was given.
strategic planning identifying goals and then determining how to best achieve them
strategy a plan of action that will respond to the constraints and take advantage of the opportunities
style distinctive character that may make a speech recognizable or memorable; achieved through language and it reflects the speaker’s awareness of how language can be used both to evoke emotions and convey a message
anticipation reaction the heightened emotional you may experience as you think about giving your speech
body the largest portion of the speech; develops your thesis and offers whatever proof you need to support your claims
communication apprehension refers to fears and worries people have about communicating with others and can range from not wanting to speak up in a small group to worrying about talking on the telephone
conclusion final part of that speech that should draw together the ideas in the speech so that they are memorable - brief summary, restate main points and ideas, repetition of thesis- and give a strong note of finality to the speech
confrontation reaction marked by increased anxiety as you begin to speak. somewhere around 15% experience elevated levels of communication apprehension
ethos character that is attributed to a speaker by listeners on the basis of what the speaker says and does in the speech; it is a character you project when speaking
extemporaneous speaker has a clear sense of the main ideas and how to organize them, but they have not planned the speech in advance word for word and can adapt to feedback from the audience
introduction should be designed to get the audience’s attention, state your thesis, and preview how you will develop your ideas
preparation outline helps you identify your main ideas and to organize them sensibly and it lists supporting materials and how you will use them
presentation outline what you use to remind yourself of the main ideas and thought organization when presenting your speech
purpose your goal for the speech, the response you are seeking from the listeners
thesis statement of your main idea; summarizes the basic point you want the audience to accept
anticipation step bring hands to position from which a gesture can be easily made
articulation refers to the clarity of individual sounds
delivery presentation; refers to how the voice ad body help create the effect a speaker wants
dialect pronunciation pattern
distributed practice brief periods of practice spread over time
empathy usually achieved through presentation that invites audience members to listen and suggests that the speaker cares about them
enunciation refers to the distinctness with which whole words are sounded
eye contact important to a speaker’s credibility; let’s you see how the audience is reacting to your speech
gesture refers to the movement of hands and arms during the speech as a means of emphasis
implementation step the few seconds in which you execute a gesture
impromptu presentation when you have little or no time to prepare for a speech
inflection similar concept except that is applies to the sentence as a whole. Appropriate inflection is important b/c without it you risk distracting listeners’ attention, distorting your message, and damaging your credibility
manuscript presentation involves a text that is prepared word for word, but is read instead of memorized
massed practice a few lengthy sessions shortly before you speak
memorized presentation opposite of impromptu, you pay such close attention to your text that you memorize it
monotone a very narrow, unchanging range that is used for the entire speech
pauses brief silences within a speech
pitch the placement of the voice on the musical scale
pronunciation refers to the accepted way to sound any given word
rate speed at which a person speaks
relaxation step when you return your hands to their normal position wherever that may be
vocalized pauses meaningless sounds that a speaker produces during moments of silence
volume refers to the loudness; the higher the volume, the louder the voice
artistic standard asks whether the speaker followed the principles of art, and hence whether he or she did the best that could be done in a specific rhetorical situation
assimilation blurring the lines between two similar messages and regard them as identical
assumption unstated, taken-for-granted beliefs in a particular situation
attention span the length of time listeners will pay attention without distraction
critical judgements those you can articulate and defend by proving reasons for them
critical listening enables you to apply critical thinking to a speech
critical thinking the ability to form and defend your own beliefs rather than blindly accepting or instantly rejecting what you hear or read
expediency standard only measure of speech then whatever is most likely to accompany the purpose should be done
facts can be independently verified by others
feedback providing a speaker the point of view from the listener’s standard
hearing sensory process
listening mental operation
opinions judgements that are not clearly true or false and so cannot be independently verified
reflective neither blind acceptance nor automatic rejection of an idea, but a considerate and thoughtful opinion about whether the idea and its support merit acceptance
rhetorical criticism the analytical assessment of messages that are intended to affect other people
allusions brief references to things they assume the listener’s know about and understand
audience culture if an audience can be characterized in terms of subjective factors such as interests, beliefs, common values, common knowledge, experience, roles and reference groups
beliefs statements listeners regard as true
condescending talking down to listeners and assuming they can’t think for themselves
fields subject matter areas with different norms and assumptions
general public listeners who share characteristics of people in general
arrangement structuring of ideas and materials in a speech.
ceremonial also know as epideictic, could be from presenting or accepting an award, introducing someone, delivering a eulogy, or commemorating an event. This type of speech focuses on the present.
communication the way an audience interacts in order to build connections whereby they can understand each other and recognize common interests
critical thinking the ability to form and defend your own judgements rather than blindly accepting or instantly rejecting what you hear or read.
deliberative most speeches are primarily this, such as making an oral report, delivering sales representation, advocating a policy, or refuting another persons’ arguments. This type of speech usually focuses on the future and what should be done
delivery the presentation of the speech. skillful delivery involves the effective use of voice, gesture, facial expression, physical movement, and visual aids.
entertaining stimulates a sense of community by celebrating common bonds among speaker and listeners
exigence a problem that cannot be avoided but that can be solved, or at least managed, through the development of an appropriate message.
extemporaneous presentation referring to an outline during a speech, not memorized word for word but have a clear sense of the ideas and how to organize them
facts statements that, in theory, can be verified by someone else ie. if somebody says the population has doubled in 25 years, it can be verified with population statistics.
feedback responses from the audience that signal how they are reacting to what you say
forensic The third category of speech occasion which is concerned with rendering judgments about events in the past.
identification when a speaker tries to find common ground between what they know about the audience and what they want to say
informing provides listeners with new information or ideas
invention generation of materials for the speech
manuscript presentation reading a written script for a speech
memory giving a speech from memory, was at one time important
opinions subjective statements that presumably are based on experience or expertise ie. The world’s population is growing too fast.
persuading influences listeners’ attitudes and behavior; either to strengthen existing beliefs or to support new ones
plagiarism never present somebody else’s ideas as your own, specify who developed the ideas or words you present, paraphrase, use several sources rather than just one
public designates two things 1. speaking that is open and accessible by others. 2. speaking is public when it affects people beyond the immediate audience.
public forum years ago, a forum was an actual place, but today it is an imagined “space” that exists whenever people have the freedom to exchange ideas about matters that affect themselves and others.
rhetoric the study of how messages affect people
rhetorical situation a situation in which people’s understanding can be changed through messages
situation specific context in which the speech was given.
strategic planning identifying goals and then determining how to best achieve them
strategy a plan of action that will respond to the constraints and take advantage of the opportunities
style distinctive character that may make a speech recognizable or memorable; achieved through language and it reflects the speaker’s awareness of how language can be used both to evoke emotions and convey a message
anticipation reaction the heightened emotional you may experience as you think about giving your speech
body the largest portion of the speech; develops your thesis and offers whatever proof you need to support your claims
communication apprehension refers to fears and worries people have about communicating with others and can range from not wanting to speak up in a small group to worrying about talking on the telephone
conclusion final part of that speech that should draw together the ideas in the speech so that they are memorable - brief summary, restate main points and ideas, repetition of thesis- and give a strong note of finality to the speech
confrontation reaction marked by increased anxiety as you begin to speak. somewhere around 15% experience elevated levels of communication apprehension
ethos character that is attributed to a speaker by listeners on the basis of what the speaker says and does in the speech; it is a character you project when speaking
extemporaneous speaker has a clear sense of the main ideas and how to organize them, but they have not planned the speech in advance word for word and can adapt to feedback from the audience
introduction should be designed to get the audience’s attention, state your thesis, and preview how you will develop your ideas
preparation outline helps you identify your main ideas and to organize them sensibly and it lists supporting materials and how you will use them
presentation outline what you use to remind yourself of the main ideas and thought organization when presenting your speech
purpose your goal for the speech, the response you are seeking from the listeners
thesis statement of your main idea; summarizes the basic point you want the audience to accept
anticipation step bring hands to position from which a gesture can be easily made
articulation refers to the clarity of individual sounds
delivery presentation; refers to how the voice ad body help create the effect a speaker wants
dialect pronunciation pattern
distributed practice brief periods of practice spread over time
empathy usually achieved through presentation that invites audience members to listen and suggests that the speaker cares about them
enunciation refers to the distinctness with which whole words are sounded
eye contact important to a speaker’s credibility; let’s you see how the audience is reacting to your speech
gesture refers to the movement of hands and arms during the speech as a means of emphasis
implementation step the few seconds in which you execute a gesture
impromptu presentation when you have little or no time to prepare for a speech
inflection similar concept except that is applies to the sentence as a whole. Appropriate inflection is important b/c without it you risk distracting listeners’ attention, distorting your message, and damaging your credibility
manuscript presentation involves a text that is prepared word for word, but is read instead of memorized
massed practice a few lengthy sessions shortly before you speak
memorized presentation opposite of impromptu, you pay such close attention to your text that you memorize it
monotone a very narrow, unchanging range that is used for the entire speech
pauses brief silences within a speech
pitch the placement of the voice on the musical scale
pronunciation refers to the accepted way to sound any given word
rate speed at which a person speaks
relaxation step when you return your hands to their normal position wherever that may be
vocalized pauses meaningless sounds that a speaker produces during moments of silence
volume refers to the loudness; the higher the volume, the louder the voice
artistic standard asks whether the speaker followed the principles of art, and hence whether he or she did the best that could be done in a specific rhetorical situation
assimilation blurring the lines between two similar messages and regard them as identical
assumption unstated, taken-for-granted beliefs in a particular situation
attention span the length of time listeners will pay attention without distraction
critical judgements those you can articulate and defend by proving reasons for them
critical listening enables you to apply critical thinking to a speech
critical thinking the ability to form and defend your own beliefs rather than blindly accepting or instantly rejecting what you hear or read
expediency standard only measure of speech then whatever is most likely to accompany the purpose should be done
facts can be independently verified by others
feedback providing a speaker the point of view from the listener’s standard
hearing sensory process
listening mental operation
opinions judgements that are not clearly true or false and so cannot be independently verified
reflective neither blind acceptance nor automatic rejection of an idea, but a considerate and thoughtful opinion about whether the idea and its support merit acceptance
rhetorical criticism the analytical assessment of messages that are intended to affect other people
allusions brief references to things they assume the listener’s know about and understand
audience culture if an audience can be characterized in terms of subjective factors such as interests, beliefs, common values, common knowledge, experience, roles and reference groups
beliefs statements listeners regard as true
condescending talking down to listeners and assuming they can’t think for themselves
fields subject matter areas with different norms and assumptions
general public listeners who share characteristics of people in general
arrangement structuring of ideas and materials in a speech.
ceremonial also know as epideictic, could be from presenting or accepting an award, introducing someone, delivering a eulogy, or commemorating an event. This type of speech focuses on the present.
communication the way an audience interacts in order to build connections whereby they can understand each other and recognize common interests
critical thinking the ability to form and defend your own judgements rather than blindly accepting or instantly rejecting what you hear or read.
deliberative most speeches are primarily this, such as making an oral report, delivering sales representation, advocating a policy, or refuting another persons’ arguments. This type of speech usually focuses on the future and what should be done
delivery the presentation of the speech. skillful delivery involves the effective use of voice, gesture, facial expression, physical movement, and visual aids.
entertaining stimulates a sense of community by celebrating common bonds among speaker and listeners
exigence a problem that cannot be avoided but that can be solved, or at least managed, through the development of an appropriate message.
extemporaneous presentation referring to an outline during a speech, not memorized word for word but have a clear sense of the ideas and how to organize them
facts statements that, in theory, can be verified by someone else ie. if somebody says the population has doubled in 25 years, it can be verified with population statistics.
feedback responses from the audience that signal how they are reacting to what you say
forensic The third category of speech occasion which is concerned with rendering judgments about events in the past.
identification when a speaker tries to find common ground between what they know about the audience and what they want to say
informing provides listeners with new information or ideas
invention generation of materials for the speech
manuscript presentation reading a written script for a speech
memory giving a speech from memory, was at one time important
opinions subjective statements that presumably are based on experience or expertise ie. The world’s population is growing too fast.
persuading influences listeners’ attitudes and behavior; either to strengthen existing beliefs or to support new ones
plagiarism never present somebody else’s ideas as your own, specify who developed the ideas or words you present, paraphrase, use several sources rather than just one
public designates two things 1. speaking that is open and accessible by others. 2. speaking is public when it affects people beyond the immediate audience.
public forum years ago, a forum was an actual place, but today it is an imagined “space” that exists whenever people have the freedom to exchange ideas about matters that affect themselves and others.
rhetoric the study of how messages affect people
rhetorical situation a situation in which people’s understanding can be changed through messages
situation specific context in which the speech was given.
strategic planning identifying goals and then determining how to best achieve them
strategy a plan of action that will respond to the constraints and take advantage of the opportunities
style distinctive character that may make a speech recognizable or memorable; achieved through language and it reflects the speaker’s awareness of how language can be used both to evoke emotions and convey a message
anticipation reaction the heightened emotional you may experience as you think about giving your speech
body the largest portion of the speech; develops your thesis and offers whatever proof you need to support your claims
communication apprehension refers to fears and worries people have about communicating with others and can range from not wanting to speak up in a small group to worrying about talking on the telephone
conclusion final part of that speech that should draw together the ideas in the speech so that they are memorable - brief summary, restate main points and ideas, repetition of thesis- and give a strong note of finality to the speech
confrontation reaction marked by increased anxiety as you begin to speak. somewhere around 15% experience elevated levels of communication apprehension
ethos character that is attributed to a speaker by listeners on the basis of what the speaker says and does in the speech; it is a character you project when speaking
extemporaneous speaker has a clear sense of the main ideas and how to organize them, but they have not planned the speech in advance word for word and can adapt to feedback from the audience
introduction should be designed to get the audience’s attention, state your thesis, and preview how you will develop your ideas
preparation outline helps you identify your main ideas and to organize them sensibly and it lists supporting materials and how you will use them
presentation outline what you use to remind yourself of the main ideas and thought organization when presenting your speech
purpose your goal for the speech, the response you are seeking from the listeners
thesis statement of your main idea; summarizes the basic point you want the audience to accept
anticipation step bring hands to position from which a gesture can be easily made
articulation refers to the clarity of individual sounds
delivery presentation; refers to how the voice ad body help create the effect a speaker wants
dialect pronunciation pattern
distributed practice brief periods of practice spread over time
empathy usually achieved through presentation that invites audience members to listen and suggests that the speaker cares about them
enunciation refers to the distinctness with which whole words are sounded
eye contact important to a speaker’s credibility; let’s you see how the audience is reacting to your speech
gesture refers to the movement of hands and arms during the speech as a means of emphasis
implementation step the few seconds in which you execute a gesture
impromptu presentation when you have little or no time to prepare for a speech
inflection similar concept except that is applies to the sentence as a whole. Appropriate inflection is important b/c without it you risk distracting listeners’ attention, distorting your message, and damaging your credibility
manuscript presentation involves a text that is prepared word for word, but is read instead of memorized
massed practice a few lengthy sessions shortly before you speak
memorized presentation opposite of impromptu, you pay such close attention to your text that you memorize it
monotone a very narrow, unchanging range that is used for the entire speech
pauses brief silences within a speech
pitch the placement of the voice on the musical scale
pronunciation refers to the accepted way to sound any given word
rate speed at which a person speaks
relaxation step when you return your hands to their normal position wherever that may be
vocalized pauses meaningless sounds that a speaker produces during moments of silence
volume refers to the loudness; the higher the volume, the louder the voice
artistic standard asks whether the speaker followed the principles of art, and hence whether he or she did the best that could be done in a specific rhetorical situation
assimilation blurring the lines between two similar messages and regard them as identical
assumption unstated, taken-for-granted beliefs in a particular situation
attention span the length of time listeners will pay attention without distraction
critical judgements those you can articulate and defend by proving reasons for them
critical listening enables you to apply critical thinking to a speech
critical thinking the ability to form and defend your own beliefs rather than blindly accepting or instantly rejecting what you hear or read
expediency standard only measure of speech then whatever is most likely to accompany the purpose should be done
facts can be independently verified by others
feedback providing a speaker the point of view from the listener’s standard
hearing sensory process
listening mental operation
opinions judgements that are not clearly true or false and so cannot be independently verified
reflective neither blind acceptance nor automatic rejection of an idea, but a considerate and thoughtful opinion about whether the idea and its support merit acceptance
rhetorical criticism the analytical assessment of messages that are intended to affect other people
allusions brief references to things they assume the listener’s know about and understand
audience culture if an audience can be characterized in terms of subjective factors such as interests, beliefs, common values, common knowledge, experience, roles and reference groups
beliefs statements listeners regard as true
condescending talking down to listeners and assuming they can’t think for themselves
fields subject matter areas with different norms and assumptions
general public listeners who share characteristics of people in general
heterogeneity refers to the diversity or variety of an audience member- the difference between them
pandering saying things to agree with an audience that you don't actually support or believe in
perception particular interpretation or understanding that a listener gets from a speech
personal interests need to asses the personal interest of the audience and how your message will apply to them
platitudes buzzwords or phrases that are devoid of specific content
reference groups socially constructed categories
roles social assigned positions that are important part of an audience’s culture
selective attention unconscious decisions made by the listeners on how they are going to take the message
selective exposure concept that our communication choices are not random rather we are inclined to expose ourselves to messages that are important to use personally and that are consistent with what we already believe
self-interests isteners can gain or lose interest based on self interests
stereotyping wrongly assuming that all members of a category are alike
universal audience an imaginary audience made up of all reasonable people
values positive or negative judgements that listeners make
agenda setting causing people to think about a topic they previously knew little about or ignored
brain storming mental exercise in which you identify the first things that come to mind when you are presented with a given term or category
conversion replacement of one set of beliefs with another set that is inconsistent with the first
general purpose statement describes your overall purpose of the speech
issue question raised by the thesis statement that must be addressed in order for the thesis itself to be addressed effectively
perspective point of view
purpose goal of a speech to get the audience to react in certain ways and achieve goals of the speech
specific purpose statement focuses on the outcome of the speech by specifying what you want to achieve
strategic plan strategy to respond to a rhetorical situation that identifies the purpose, constraints, and opportunities it provides
thesis a succinct statement of the central idea or claim made by the speech
topic what your speech is about and what its purpose is
topoi greek meaning of commonplaces, can be used to form the categories in the first place
4 characteristics of Public Forum 1 some problem affects people collectively as well as individually 2 cooperative action is needed to address the problem 3 the decision requires subjective judgement 4 a decision is required
3 most general purposes of speeches informing, persuading, entertaining
5 headings under speaker opportunities invention, arrangement, style, delivery, memory
Organizational patterns develop an introduction; assemble the body of the speech; prepare a conclusion
4 steps to practicing a speech develop and talk through the preparation outline; reduce the preparation outline to a presentation outline; develop exact wording for the introduction and the conclusion; simulate the conditions under which you will speak
4 Modes of Presentation: impromptu, memorized, manuscript, extemporaneous
4 factors of listener distractions listener distractions, limited attention spans, jumping to conclusions, situational distractions
Characteristics of good listeners mapping, note taking, listening carefully
Mapping the listener draw a diagram showing the relationship between the thesis of the speech and the main ideas that support
Formal methods of Audience analysis taking a survey of the audience
Informal methods of audience analysis asking the host a few questions before hand
Audience demographics What the audience brings to the art in terms of their own knowledge and experience
Characteristics of a good speech Memorability, Succinctness, Appropriateness, Positive
Created by: 1340353549