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SOC 419


The science of knowing; systems of knowledge epistemology
The science of finding out; procedures for scientific investigation methodology
Those things we "know" as part and parcel of the culture we share with those around us agreement reality
logical sets of attributes. The _____ sex is made up of the attributes male and female variables
characteristics of people or things attributes
The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations induction
the logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the basis of general principles deduction
a model or frame of reference through which to observe and understand paradigm
philosophical system grounded on the rational proof/disproof of scientific assertions; assumes a knowable, objective reality positivism
a paradigm that views human behavior as attempts to dominate others or avoid being dominated by others conflict paradigm
a paradigm that views human behavior as the creation of meaning through social interactions, with those meanings conditioning subsequent interactions symbolic interactionism
a paradigm that divides social phenomena into parts, each of which serves a function for the operation of the whole structural functionalism
paradigms that 1)view and understand society through the experiences of women and/or 2)examine the generally deprived status of women in society feminist paradigms
a paradigm grounded in race awareness and an intention to achieve racial justice critical race theory
the thesis that majority group members will only support the interests of minorities when those a actions also support the interests of the majority group interest convergence
a paradigm that questions the assumptions of positivism and theories describing an "objective" reality postmodernism
A paradigm that holds things are real insofar as they produce effects critical realism
a specified testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition; more generally, an expectation about the nature of things derived from a theory hypothesis
one step beyond conceptualization. The process of developing operational definitions , or specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable operationalization
the concrete and specific definition of something in terms of the operations by which observations are to be categorized operational definition
the hypothesis that suggests there is no relationship among the variables under study null hypothesis
a norm in which subjects base their voluntary participation in research projects on a full understanding of the possible risks involved informed consent
achieved in a research project when neither the researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent anonymity
when the researcher can identify a given person's responses but promises not to do so publicly confidentiality
interviewing subjects to learn about their experience of participation in the project. debriefing
a coincidental statistical correlation between two variables, shown to be caused by some third variable spurious relationship
the what or whom being studied units of analysis
any product of social beings or their behavior (can be a unit of analysis) social artifact
erroneously drawing conclusions about individuals solely from the observation of groups ecological fallacy
a fault of some researchers: a strict limitation of the kinds of concepts to be considered relevant to the phenomenon under study reductionism
a paradigm based in the view that social behavior can be explained solely in terms of genetic characteristics and behavior sociobiology
a study based on observations representing a single point in time cross-sectional study
a study design involving the collection of data at different points in time longitudinal study
a type of longitudinal study in which a given characteristic of some population is monitored over time trend study
a study in which some specific sub-population is studied over time, although data may be collected from different members in each set of observations cohort study
a type of longitudinal study, in which data are collected from the same set of people at several points in time panel study
the mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions are made more specific and precise conceptualization
an observation that we choose to consider as a reflection of a variable we wish to study indicator
a specifiable aspect of a concept dimension
the process through which concepts are made more specific specification
variable that has attributes that are merely different nominal measure
a level of measurement describing a variable with attributes we can rank-order along some dimension ordinal measure
a level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are rank-ordered and have equal distances between adjacent attributes interval measure
a level of measurement describing a variable with attributes that have all the qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval measures and in addition are based on a true zero point ratio measure
the quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same phenomenon reliability
a term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to measure validity
the quality of an indicator that makes it seem a reasonable measure of some variable face validity
the degree to which a measure related to some external criterion criterion-related validity
the degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships construct validity
the degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept content validity
a type of composite measure that summarized and rank-orders several specific observations and represents some more-general dimension index
a type of composite measure composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them scale
an assessment of whether each of the items included in a composite measure makes an independent contribution or merely duplicates the contribution of other items in the measure item analysis
the process of testing the validity of a measure by examining its relationship to other, presumed indicators of the same variable external validation
measurement technique for determining the willingness of people to participate in social relations- of varying degrees of closeness- with other kinds of people Bogardus social distance scale
a type of composite measure, constructed in accord with the weights assigned by "judges" to various indicators of some variables Thurstone scale
a type of composite measure developed in an attempt to improve the levels of measurement in social research through the use of standardized response categories in survey questionnaires, to determine the relative intensity of different terms Likert scale
a questionnaire formate in which the respondent is asked to rate soemthing in terms of two, opposite adjectives, using qualifiers such as very, somewhat, neither, somewhat, and very to bridge the distance between the two opposites semantic differential
a type of composite measure used to summarize several discrete observations and to represent some more-general variable Guttman scale
the classification of observations in terms of their attributes on two or more variables typology
any technique in which samples are selected in some way not suggested by probability theory nonprobability sampling
a type of nonprobability sampling in which the units to be observed are selected on the basis of the researcher's judgment about which ones will be the most useful or representative purposive (judgmental) sampling
a nonprobability sampling method, often employed in field research, whereby each person interviewed may be asked to suggest additional people for interviewing snowball sampling
a type of nonprobability sampling in which units are selected into a sample on the basis of prespecified characteristcs, so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied quota sampling
someone who is well versed in the social phenomenon that you with to study and who is willing to tell you what he or she knows about it informant
the general term for samples selected in accord with probability theory, typically involving some random-selection mechanism probability sampling
that quality of a sample of having the same distribution of characteristics as the population from which it was selected representativeness
a sample design in which each member of a population has the same chance of being selected into the sample EPSEM (equal probability of selection method)
the unit of which a population is composed and which is selected in a sample element
the theoretically specified aggregation of the elements in a study population
the aggregation of elements from which a sample is actually selected study population
a sampling method in which each element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process random selection
that element or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling sampling unit
the summary description of a variable in a sample, used to estimate a population parameter statistic
the degree of error to be expected by virtue of styding a sample instead of everyone sampling error
the estimated probability that a population parameter lies within a given confidence interval confidence level
the range of values within a population parameter is estimated to lie confidence interval
that list or quasi list of units composing a population from which a sample is selected sampling frame
a type of probability sampling in which the units composing a population are assigned numbers. A set of random numbers is then generated, and the units having those numbers are included in the sample simple random sampling
a type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample systematic sampling
the standard distance between elements selected from a population for a sample sampling interval
the proportion of elements in the population that are selected to be in a sample sampling ratio
the grouping of the units composing a population into homogeneous groups before sampling stratification
a multistage sampling in which natural groups are sampled initially, with the members of each selected group being sub-sampled afterward cluster sampling
a type of multistage cluster sample in which clusters are selected, not with equal probabilities but with probabilities proportionate to their sizes PPS (probability proportionate to size)
assigning different weights to cases that were selected into a sample with different probabilities of selection weighting
a person who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire respondent
a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis questionnaire
questions for which the respondent is asked to provide his or her own answers open-ended questions
survey questions in which the respondent is asked to select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher close-ended questions
the quality of a measurement device that tends to result in a misrepresentation of what is being measured in a particular direction bias
a survey question intended for some respondents, determined by their responses to some other question contingency question
the number of people participating in a survey divided by the number selected in the sample, in the form of a percentage response rate
a technique employed in interviewing to solicit a more complete answer to a question probe
a sampling technique in which random numbers are selected from within the ranges of numbers assigned to active telephones random-digit dialing
a data collection technique in which a telephone survey questionnaire is storedin a computer, permitting the interviewer to read the questions from the monitor and enter the answers on the computer screen computer-assisted telephone interviewing
a form of reserach in which the data collected and processed by one researcher and reanalyzed- often for a different purpose- by another secondary analysis
two sources of secondhand knowledge tradition and authority
errors in inquiry 1. inaccurate observations 2. overgeneralization 3. selective observation (focus on events that fit the pattern) 4. illogical reasoning
purposes of social research exploratory, describing, explanatory
criteria for nomothetic causality 1. correlation 2. time order (cause takes place before the effect) 3. variables are nonspurious
ecological fallacy erroneously drawing conclusions about individuals solely from the observation of groups
Four kinds of sampling error 1. coverage error 2. sampling error 3. measurement error 4. nonresponse error
Created by: emmaanderson09
Popular Psychology sets




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