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MN-LXMO Core Module

Limited Scope X-Ray Operator for MN Core Module

Supine Lying on the back
Prone Lying face down
Decubitus Lying down with a horizontal x-ray beam
Recumbent Lying down in any position
Anterior Position Facing the film
Posterior position Facing the radiographic Tube
Oblique Position (erect or lying down)
Left Anterior Oblique (LAO) Body rotated with the left anterior closest to the film
Right Anterior Oblique (RAO) Body rotated with the right posterior portion closest to the film
Recorded Detail The sharpness of the structural lines as recorded int he radiographic image
Density The degree of blackening or opacity of an area in a radiograph due to the accumulation of black metallic silver following exposure and processing of a film
Contrast the visible differences between any two selected areas of density levels within the radiographic image
Film Latitude Inherent ability of the film to record a long range of density levels on the radiograph
Film Contrast Inherent ability of the film emulsion to react to radiation and record a range of densities
Exposure Latitude The range of exposure factors which will produce a diagnostic radiograph
Subject Contrast The difference in the quantity of radiation transmitted by a particular part as a result of the difference absorption characteristics of the tissues and structures making up that part
1.The link between radiation dose and genetic effects? *The links has been demonstrated in animal studies. *Increased risk to humans cannot be predicted with respect to an individual. (NOTE: the link has not nor ever will be demonstrated in human studies!)
2.What change in kilovoltage (kVP)will result in the greatest reduction of patient dose, when mAs is adjusted to compensate for the change? Increase kVp by 30%
3.What image receptor (IR) system speeds will result in the lowest patient dose? Faster-speed IR system
4.What is the primary purpose of using gonad shielding? To reduce the likelihood of genetic effects
5.Name some common types of gonad shielding Contact and shadow
6.When should gonad shielding be used? When gonads are within 5 cm of the radiation field
7.The greatest cause of unnecessary radiation to patients that can be controlled by the limited operator is Repeat Exposures
8.The LXMO can reduce repeat exposures by Clearly instructing patients
9.How does x-ray beam restriction minimize patient exposure? Limits the radiation field to the area of interest
10.What is the device that allows the limited operator to vary the size of the radiation field? The Collimator
11.Howe does filtration reduce patient exposure? It removes longer-wavelength photons
12.What is the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommendation for the amount of total filtration? 2.5 aluminum equivalent (Al equiv)
13.What are the three principal methods used to protect limited operators from unnecessary radiation exposure? Time, distance and shielding
14.Name three types of shielding Apron, Glove and thyroid shield
15.The LXMO may need to remain in the room during exposure. What is the source of the greatest radiation hazard under this circumstance? Scatter radiation from the patient
16.What is the term for radiation that escapes from the x-ray tube housing? Leakage
17.Why are LXMO prohibited from activities that result in direct exposure to the primary x-ray beam? They are considered occupationally exposed individuals
18.Distance The operator should maximize the distance from the source during exposure
19.Shielding worn for personnel protection is designed to attenuate what source of exposure? Scatter
20.Acronym for common personal dosimeter TLD
21.What is the recommended placement for a personnel dosimeter on the body of the limited operator Badges should be worn in the region of the collar on the anterior surface of the the body and outside the lead apron
22.What is the NCRP recommended annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure? 5.0 rem
23.What is the NCRP recommended monthly effective (or equivalent)dose limit to the fetus for a pregnant worker 0.05 rem
24.Radiation monitoring of personnel is required when what percentage of the annual occupation effective dose limit is likely to be received? 10%
25.What is the conventional (British System) radiation unit to express radiation intensity in air? Roentgen
26.The conventional (British system) unit commonly used to report occupation dose to radiation workers in the United States is the rem.
27.What is the conventional (British System) radiation unit of absorbed dose? Rad
28.According to the Bergonie-Tribondeau law, what types of cells are most radiosensitive? Embryonic tissue
29.What type of radiation effects is typical of the risk of a patient undergoing a diagnostic x-ray examination? Stochastic effects
30.What occurs with a high radiation dose? Short-term somatic effects & Nonstochastic effects
31.What is erythema Reddening of the skin caused by high radiation dose
32.What is the guiding philosophy of radiation protection? ALARA As low as reasonably achievable
33.What is true of current scientific opinion 33.regarding the effects of diagnostic levels of ionizing radiation? There is increased risk of cancer, leukemia, birth defects, and cataracts.
34.What changes can be made to decrease patient dose? Using faster intensifying screens & Increasing the kVp using the 15% rule
35.When radiation exposure occurs during 35.pregnancy, the greatest risk of birth defects occurs when the exposure: Exceeds 5 rad to the uterus & Occurs within the first trimester of pregnancy
36.What are the four essential elements required for x-ray production? A target, a vacuum, an electron source, and a high potential difference
37.The target of the x-ray tube is made of: Tungsten
38.The greatest portion of the x-ray beam is made up of: bremsstrahlung radiation
39.The penetrating power of the x-ray beam is controlled by varying the: kilovoltage (kVp)
40.What function involves the auto-transformer? kVp selection
41.The process of causing alternating current to flow in one direction only is called: rectification
42.Nearly all new x-ray machines manufactured today use _______ generators High-Frequency
43.What is the standard control limit for the field light to radiation field alignment test? ±5% of SID
44.What is the standard control limit for the beam (central ray) alignment test? Within 1 degree of perpendicular
45.How often should lead aprons and gloves be checked for cracks or holes? Every 6 months
46.At what kVp levels do Comption interactions occur? Throughout the diagnostic radiology kVp range
47.What is used to test film/screen contact? Wire mesh tool
48.What are the prime factors of exposure in radiography? mA, exposure time, kVp, and distance (SID)
49.What factors will result in increased radiographic density? Increased mA Increased exposure time Increased kVp
50.if the radiographic image is overexposed, what changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem? Decrease mAs
51.The relationship between SID and beam intensity is expressed in the: Inverse square law
52.What are the four primary aspects of radiographic quality? Density, contrast, distortion and recorded detail
53.Contrast is primarily controlled by: kVp
54.Fog affects radiographic quality by causing: Decreased contrast
55.A change from the small focal spot to the large focal spot will result in: Decreased image sharpness
56.An increase in object-image distance (OID) will result in: Increased magnification
57.Motion of the patient, tube, or the IR during an exposure will result in decreased: Recorded detail
58.Quantum mottle or graininess in the radiographic image because of the size and 58.distribution of film and/or screen crystals affects image quality by decreasing the radiographic: Recorded detail
59.Quantum mottle is only a problem with: Very fast speed IR systems
60.Name some factors which can increase recorded detail: Increase in SID and decreased focal spot size
61.Intensifying screen speed is defined as: The efficiency of a screen in converting x-rays to light
62.What is the proper method for storing unopened boxes of x-ray film? Standing on edge
63.Which of the following describe the characteristics curve of a film with wide latitude and long scale contrast? more horizontal and wide curve
64.What controls the amount of replenisher added in automatic processing? The size of the film passing over an intake sensor
65.Name the steps in automatic processing in their correct sequence: Developer, fixer, wash, dry
66.What two specialized instruments are required for monitoring processor performance? Densitometer and sensitometer
67.Marks, exposures, or images on a radiograph that are not a part of the intended image are called: Artifacts
68.What factors can affect the quantity of scatter radiation fog on a radiograph? Field size and kVp
69.If the size of the x-ray field increases, what happens to scatter radiation fog on a radiograph? Scatter radiation fog increases also
70.If the amount of irradiated tissue increases, what happens the scatter radiation fog? Scatter radiation fog increases also
71.What is the principal source of scatter radiation in radiography? The patient
72.The most effective and practical way to reduce scatter radiation fog on Use a bucky or a grid
73.As the general rule, a grid should be employed when the part thickness is greater than: 12 cm
74.Technique charts are based on patient part measurements obtained using an x-ray caliper and are expressed as: Thickness in centimeters
75.What pathological disorders would require a decrease in exposure? *Multiple myeloma *emphaysema *osteoporosis
76.How will the anode heel effect, if possible, be seen on an image? Image will be lighter on the anode end than on the cathode end
77.What radiographic quality factor is most affected by angulation of the central ray, part, or IR? Distortion
78.What is the recommendation for a hard-copy image that is mislabeled? A sticker with the correct information should be applied to the hard-copy image.
79.Use of a relative speed (RS) 100 screen with the mAs set for a RS 300 screen will result in what outcome? Insufficient density
80.IR exposure with a kVp higher than needed for the particular anatomic structures will result in Insufficient contrast
81 & 82.What will result in a screen/film image with poor recorded detail? Poor screen and film contact in the IR & Patient motion
83.What could result in a screen/film image with excessive magnification of image structures? Hint:Greater SID or IOD than recommended for body part. IOD
84.Improper positioning of the anatomic structure on the IR will result in what? a screen/film image with excessive distortion of image structures.
85.Which screen/film image artifact looks like lightning? Static artifact
86.Which of the following would be a violation of patient confidentiality? A LMXO talks to his friend during lunch about a patient's imaging procedure
87.What is true of informed consent? Informed consent may be revoked by at any time & The patient must be legally competent to sign
A LMXO innocently commits an error as a result of following the orders of his/her employer, a physician. The employer may be held responsible according to the: Doctrine of respondeat superior
Communication has been "validated" when the speaker has__________. Received a response from the listener that demonstrates comprehension.
92. which term refers to any medium that transports microorganisms? vehicle
what type of disease transmission is possible when the limited operator does not clean the Bucky device after performing an examination on a patient with influenza? Fomite transmission
94.Standard precautions involve the uses of barriers whenever contact is anticipated with what? Blood Body fluids and Mucous membranes
95. The process of reducing the probability that infectious organisms will be transmitted to a susceptible individual is called _____? asepsis
What is the most common site for palpation of patient's pulse? Radial artery at the wrist
Created by: lroseissa22