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CSN 121 Chap 1&2

Chemistry the Central Science, 121

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition for matter? Physical material of the universe, anything that has mass and occupies space.
What is the definition for a property? Any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and to distinguish it from other types.
What is the definition for elements? A substance that cannot be separated into a simpler substance by chemical means.
What is the definition of a molecule? Two or more atoms that are joined together in specific shapes.
Define a pure substance: Matter that has distinct properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample.
Define the Law of Constant Composition and what is its other name? Law of definite proportions, the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same.
What is another name for a homogeneous mixture and its definition? Solution, a uniform mixture throughout.
What are some physical properties of matter? Observable without changing identity, color odor, density, melting point, boiling point, and hardness.
What are some chemical properties of matter? the way a substance may change or react to form other substances: flammability
What are intensive properties? Temp, melting point, density, they do not depend on the amount of the sample being examined.
What are extensive properties? depend on quantity, mass, volume.
What meaning does the abbreviations M, k, c, m mue, n, p have? M - Mega (10^6), k - Kilo (10^3), c - Centi (10^-2), m - Milli (10^-3), mue - Micro (10^-6), p - Pico (10^-6)
What is the conversion for C to F degrees? 9/5(C) + 32
What is the conversion for C to Kelvin? C + 273.15
how do you find volume for a cube? The length of the cube cubed
What are common conversions for volume(L,mL)? L=dm^3, mL=cm^3
What is the formula for density? density = mass/volume (g/cm^3)
Define precision: A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another
Define accuracy: How closely individual measurements agree with the "true" value.
The numbers 2.2g and 2.2405g have how many sig figs? 2.2 - 2, 2.2405 -5.
Regarding zeroes between nonzero digits are they significant? Yes
Regarding zeroes at the beginning of a number are they significant? e.g. 0.02, 0.0026 No, 0.02 (1), 0.0026 (2)
Regarding zeroes at the end of a number are they significant significant if they contain a decimal point? e.g. 0.0200, 3.0 Yes, 0.0200 (3), 3.0 (2).
Regarding zeroes at the end of a number are they significant if there is no decimal point? e.g. 10,300 No 10,300 (3)
Regarding significant figures what is the rule for addition and subtraction? e.g. 20.42 + 1.322 + 104.842 = The result ends with the number that has the fewest decimal places. 104.842 = 104.8
Regarding significant figures what is the rule multiplication and division? e.g. 6.221 X 5.2 = The result is rounded off to the fewest significant figures one of the terms has. 6.221 X 5.2 = 32.3492 = 32
What are the three types of radiation? alpha, beta and gamma
Which radiation types consist of fast moving particles? alpha and beta
What charges do the three types of radiation hold? alpha positive, beta negative, gamma neutral.
What are the amu measurements as well as the charges for the subatomic particles? proton +1 & 1 amu, electron -1 & 0.0005486 amu, neutron none & 1 amu
What are atmos measured in regarding length? Angstrom (A with a circle above), angstroms equal 10^10m
What are the proton/neutron configuration for ^11C, ^14C? ^11C has 6 protons and 5 neutrons where 14^C has 6 protons and 8 neutrons
What is the relative size of an atom and of its nucleus? atom diameter 1-5A, nucleus 10^-4A
What is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom called and where is it on the periodic table listing? Atomic number, subscript to the left of element symbol
What is the term for the number of the protons and neutrons in an element as well as its position on the periodic table listing? Mass number, superscript and to the left of element symbol.
What are atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers? isotopes.
What are the conversions for amu to g? 1g = 6.02214 X 10^23 amu or 1amu = 1.66054 X 10^-24g
What is the name of the group on the periodic table from 57-70? Lanthinides
What is the name of the group on the periodic table from 89-102? Actinides
What are the vertical columns on the periodic table called? Groups
What are the horizontal rows of the periodic table? Periods
What does IUPAC stand for? International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
What is the group name for 1A? Alkali metals
What is the group name for 2A? Alkaline earth metals
What is the name for group 6A? Chalcogens
What is the name for the group 7A? Halogens
What is the name for the group 8A? Noble gasses
What elements normally occur as diatomic molecules? hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and the halogens.
What are the formulas that give only the relative number of atoms of each type in a molecule? Empirical formulas, the subscripts in these formulas are always the smallest possible whole number ratios.
Created by: emeriken1277