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PSY

developmental psy

QuestionAnswer
what is important in development? nature and nurture
nature: what we're born with; our genes
nurture: what we are taught
what are some methods that scientists used to study whether or not nature or nurture plays a bigger role in our development? adoption studies, twin studies
adoption studies: is the adopted child more like their adoptive parents or biological parents?
twin studies: are separated twins still alike?
what are some problems with the twin studies? did the same type of family adopt each child? We dig for similarities instead of recognizing the differences; same-appearance = self-fulfilling prophecy
how many pairs of chromosomes does a human cell have? 23
which is the only chromosome not paired? sperm and egg
why can't a dog and cat reproduce together? they don't have the same number of chromosomes in their cells
When a baby is born, which sense is well-developed? their hearing, taste, and smell (can recognize mom and dad's voice, love mom's smell)
how is a baby's vision when he/she is first born? very near-sighted; prefer faces, patterns; can only see black and white; then primary colors, then pastels, etc.
as far as memory goes... babies prefer to hear stories that were read to them while they were still in the womb!
Freud says that as far as personality development there are 5 stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
oral ages 0-2, put everything in mouth, some don't ever leave this stage according to Freud (biting nails, chewing on pens)
anal: potty-training; according to freud this may determine whether you are either anal-retentive or anal-expulsive
Erikson's theory of trust says that... a person develops trust as a baby; if the parents run to the child every time they cry they are likely to trust more easily in life rather than if the child gets no attention at all.
Harry Harlow did an experiment testing the theory of: contact comfort
contact comfort: everyone wants to be touched; babies will develop faster and better the more they are caressed and touched.
Who came up with the theory of Identity? Marcia
According to marcia, what are the two steps a person must go through in their lifetime? crisis and commitment
crisis: some time in your life you will have an 'identity crisis' and really think about who you want to be and what you want to do
commitment: you really figure out what you want and you commit to it.
What are the four boxes of Marcia's theory? diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and identity achieved
diffusion: NN: party it up! Life is short!
moratorium: YN: adolescence; thinking about what you want to do/who you are, no commitment; kind of crappy feeling
foreclosure: NY: making a commitment without thinking it over first; maybe because of the expectations of others, etc.... no crisis
identity achieved: where we strive to be; you know who you are; you are happy with you life!
What are the three theories of aging? wear and tear; Genetic programming; Kubler-Ross's theory of death and dying
wear and tear: aging results from gradual wearing out
genetic programming: built in biological clocks
Kubler-Ross death and dying theory: LOOK UP IN BOOK
Who wrote "rites of passage"? Colin Turnbull
what are "rites of passage"? a significant event or ceremony to mark the transition from childhood to adulthood
What are Turnbull's Three stages he says are present in most NON-western rites of passage? a period of separation; a long period of preparation for adulthood and new status; reincorporation into the group or family as an adult
cultures that use rites of passage... seem to have much less conflict and turmoil between adolescents and adults
Androgyny or Androgynous: very flexible; posses the most flexible set of traits
masculine if: rated high on masculine and low on feminine traits
feminine if: rated high on feminine and low on masculine traits
undifferentiated if: rated low in both feminine and masculine traits
Androgynous if: rated high in both feminine and masculine; flexible as in they are willing to take risks but also be sensitive to the needs of others
Who developed this inventory? Sandra Bem
What are the four different gender-role orientations? masculine, feminine, undifferentiated, or androgynous
Situational objects: cues to enhance aggressive behaviors
weapons effect: when the presence of a weapon serves as a cue to aggressive behaviors in general
Created by: kelseyrae