Question | Answer |

What is the definition of measurement used by the text? | measurement is the systematic process by which things are differentiated; measurement is not a random process, but one that proceeds according to rules and guidelines |

What are some of the examples of variable properties? | distance, duration, frequency, magnitude, topography, latency, pattern |

What are the scales of measurement? | nominal scales, ordinal scales, interval scales, ratio scales |

What are nominal scales? | provides classification without placing any value on the categories within the classification; none of the properties of a real number system |

What are ordinal scales? | indicate whether a person or object has more or less of a certain quality; do not ensure that there are equal intervals between categories or ranks |

What are interval scales? | have real-number system properties of order and distance, but lack a meaningful origin; equal intervals so addition and subtraction are meaningful, no meaningful origin because no true zero |

What are ratio scales? | exhibit order, distance, and origin; all arithmetic functions can be applied; absence is zero |

How do you determine the scale of a measurement? | determine whether there is a true zero, whether intervals between numbers are equal, and whether there is an order to the numbers or names that constitute the measure |

What are the two classifications of variables? | continuous and discrete |

What are continuous variables? | one that theoretically can be measured to a finer and finer degree |

What are discrete variables? | numbers can only assume one distinct category, no "between categories" |

What seven basic concepts underlie measurement theory? | 1 frequency distribution, 2 mean, 3 variance, 4 standard deviation, 5 normal curve, 6 correlation coefficient, and 7 standard error of measurement |

What are the two basic frameworks in which measurement is conducted and evaluated? | norm-referenced and criterion referenced |

What are norm-referenced frameworks? | measurements that use raw scores that are compared with tables of raw-score norms |

What are criterion referenced frameworks? | individual's performance is evaluated with respect to some absolute level of achievement |

How is reliability defined? | the degree to which test scores are free from errors of measurement |

What are the two theories of reliability? | classical measurement theory and generalizability theory |

What is classical measurement theory? | the assumption that every measurement, or obtained score, consists of a true component and an error component |

What is generalizability theory? | recognizes that there are different sources of variability for any measure |

What are the four components of reliability presented? | instrument, intrarater, interrater, and intrasubject reliability |

What are the two was in which reliability is quantified? | relative reliability and absolute reliability |

What is relative reliability? | examines the relationship between two or more sets of repeated measures |

What is absolute reliability? | examines the variability of the scores from measurement to measurement |

What is measurement validity? | the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness f the specific inferences made from test scores |

What three forms of validity are concerned with measurement validity? | construct validity, content validity, and criterion validity |

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amwilliamson