(r.1855-81)Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
Refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary.
"Blood and iron"
Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of "blood and iron".
The federal council of Austrian government.
Count Camillo Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.
A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; they were liberal patriots.
1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich.
Monarch rules with limitations by the constitution; written or unwritten.
A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III which brought France into the Franco Prussian war.
1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany.
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.
Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.
1865-1909; King of Belgium, sent Henry Stanley to Africa.
The base ideas of liberty and equality.
Italy idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people.
Pride in one's nation, group, or traditions; a desire for independence.
Original Napoleon’s nephew; consolidated conservative government and the ideals of nationalism.
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Persecution of minorities, especially the Jews in Russia.
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian.
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power.
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Syllabus of Errors
1864. Pope Pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and separation of church and state.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule.
Local assemblies in Russia.
Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1834 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tariffs.
Italian period of history from 1815 to1850.
Great German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Big Germans".
Little German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Little Germans".
Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries.