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AP European History

Chapter 21 - Napoleon and the Revolutionary Legacy

Glossary TermDefinition
Napoleon Bonaparte A general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, Emperor of the French
The Continental System Napoleon's blockade that was supposed to make Europe more self-sufficient and destroy Britain's commercial and industrial economy.
Invasion of Russia, 1812 Napoleon failed in this campaign as the enemy kept on retreating farther and weakening the Napoleonic Army; finally Napoleon retreated. This marked the start of Napoleon's fall.
Battle of Borodino It was fought by the French Grande Armée under Napoleon I of France and the Imperial Russian army of Alexander I. The clash was a pivotal point in the campaign as it was the last offensive battle fought by Napoleon in Russia
Joseph M.W. Turner Was an English Romantic landscape painter and water colourist, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism.
Eugene Delacroix Was the most important of the French Romantic painters. His use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of color profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionism.
Ludwig van Beethoven German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)
Spanish Revolt, 1820 Was fought in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. It was a conflict between royalists and liberals with France intervening on the side of the royalists.
Decembrist Revolt, 1825 Was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers.
French Revolution, 1830 Was a vital period in the history of France and Europe as a whole. During this time, democracy replaced the absolute monarchy in France.
Charles X Was King of France from 1824 to 1830 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated rather than become a constitutional monarch. He was the last king of the senior Bourbon line.
Louis-Philippe Reigned as King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. He was, to date, the last king ever to rule France.
Sir Robert Peel Was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He introduced his concept of the police force. while Home Secretary, he oversaw the formation of the Conservative Party out of the shattered Tory Party, and repealed the Corn Law.
Whigs Political opposition in 18th century England that developed a theory of citizen rights and representation
Liberalism A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
Nationalism Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, it was a force for unity in western Europe
Congress of Vienna Meeting in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.
Klemens von Metternich Was an Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. He was a major figure on the negotiations leading to the Congress of Vienna. He was an ultra-convservative.
Robert Castlereagh He was an Anglo-Irish politician born in Dublin who represented the United Kingdom at the Congress of Vienna.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Was a French diplomat. He worked successfully from the regime of Louis XVI, through the French Revolution and then under Napoleon I, Louis XVIII and Louis-Philippe.
Conservatism A political philosophy that favors traditional values.
Peterloo Was the result of a cavalry charge into the crowd at a public meeting at St Peter's Fields, Manchester, England
Six Acts Following the Peterloo massacre of August 16, 1819, the UK government acted to prevent any future disturbances by the introduction of new legislation.
Jeremy Bentham Was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He argued in favour of individual and economic freedom, including the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, animal rights, the end of slavery,etc.
Socialism Advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole. It greatly supported workers and their rights.
Utopian socialists People who believe that people can live at peace with each other if they live in small cooperative settlements, owning all of the means of production in common and sharing the products.
Romanticism An artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. It stressed emotions and feelings and a love of nature.
Lord Byron Was a British poet and a leading figure in Romanticism. Among his best-known works are the narrative poems Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and Don Juan.
William Wordsworth Was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads.
Mary Shelley An English romantic/gothic novelist, the author of Frankenstein.
Caspar David Friedrich 19th century German Romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement- especially Romantic painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
Duke of Wellington The English general who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.
Josephine Wife of Napoléon Bonaparte became Empress of the French. Through her daughter, Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoleon III.
George Stephenson An English mechanical engineer who designed the famous and historically important steam locomotive named Rocket and is known as the "Father of Railways".
Lycees Provides a three-year course of further secondary education for children between the ages of 15 and 18. Pupils are prepared for the baccalauréat. The baccalauréat can lead to higher education studies or directly to professional life.
Louis XVIII King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he dated his reign from 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleon's return in the Hundred Days.
Hundred Days The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
Battle of Waterloo Fought on June 18, 1815, was Napoleon Bonaparte's last battle. After his exile to Elba, he had reinstalled himself on the throne of France for a Hundred Days.
St. Helena The place of exile of Napoleon Bonaparte between 1815 and his death in 1821. Longwood House, where Napoleon stayed.
Napoleonic Code These were the civil laws put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property.
Alexander I The Tsar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon.
Austerlitz The battle in the early 1800's at which Napoleon proved his control of the continent by defeating the combined Austrian and Russian forces.
Battle of Leipzig Also known as the Battle of the Nations; in October 1813, the combined armies of the fourth coalition decisively defeated Napoleon and the French army. It led to Napoleon's first exile.
Battle of Trafalgar An 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
First Consul The position that Napoleon declared himself to seize power of France.
Frederick William III King of Prussia who became involved in the Napoleonic Wars.
Island of Elba Following the Treaty of Fontainebleau, French emperor Napoleon I as exiled to after his forced abdication in 1814. He was allowed to keep a personal guard of six hundred men and was made the Emperor of the island.
Created by: alfromcanada on 2007-01-12



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