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une ch 28

formation and degradation of glycogen

QuestionAnswer
glycogen synthesis f/s/p Fx: maintain blood glucose later(liver). glucose so you can use it for energy for contractions at a later time (muscle). Substrates: ATP, glucose, UTP Products: ADP, (glucose-6-phosphate is an intermediate), glycogen, pyrophosphate (PPi --> 2Pi), and U
glycogen synthesis c/r/c/t Control Enzyme: glycogen synthase Regulation: Insulin/Glucagon ratio and amount of glucose present (liver), epinephrine can also inhibit. Muscle insulin level (muscle). Compartment: cytosol tissues: liver and muscles
glycogenolysis (glycogen degradation)f/s/p Function: Provide blood glucose (liver). Provide glucose to produce energy for muscle contractions (muscle). Substrates: Glycogen, Free phosphates Products: free glucose and g-1-p or g-6-p
glycogenolysis (glycogen degradation)c/r/c/t Control: debrancher enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase Reg: G phosphorylase, also epi has an effect. (Phosphorylation activates control enzyme.) In muscle, GNL is regulated via activation of glycogen phosphorylase by [AMP], [Ca2+],presence of epi C: Cytosol
What is the effect of a high carbohydrate meal, fasting, or stress upon the blood concentrations of insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine? High Carb Meal: increased insulin, decreased cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. Fasting: decreased insulin, increased glucagon, epinephrine and cortisol rise slowly. Stress: insulin decreases and stress hormones go up.
What is the effect of a high carbohydrate meal upon blood glucose and the glucose in liver cells? Blood glucose levels will immediately increase. Insulin will rise and promote the uptake of glucose into the tissues. Glycogen synthesis will be activated and glycogen degradation will be inhibited.
What is the effect of changes in the insulin, blood glucose or epinephrine upon glycogen (GG) synthesis and glycogen degradation in muscle? GG Synth inc when insln inc and dec when insln dec. It inc when bglu up and dec when bglu down. Muscle GG stores stable at rest,during stress/exercise epi released into the blood which stimulates GNL to meet energy needs. glucagon=NO effect on muscles.
In order of their activation, be able to name and give the reason for the activation of all the intermediates in the cAMP cascade in liver. Glucagon ----> G-Proteins ----> Adenylate Cyclase --> cAMP --> (PKA)--> Phosphorylase Kinase --> Phosphorylase B --> Phosphorylase A -> G-1-P-> G-6-P-> Glucose At same time, active PKA phosphorylates gg synthase to its inactive form, thereby dec gg synth
Created by: carolanimal on 2012-09-11



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