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ServSafe Pathogens

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold

QuestionAnswer
What are pathogens? Certain viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi that can cause illness.
What is time-temperature abuse? When food stays out too long at temperatures that are good for pathogen growth.
What is foodborne illness? Disease transmitted to people by food.
What six conditions does bacteria need to grow? 1. Food 2. Acidity 3. Temperature 4. Time 5. Oxygen 6. Moisture
What words help to remember the optimum conditions for pathogens to grow in food? FAT TOM
What does TCS refer to? Foods that are sensitive to time and temperature abuse, making conditions favorable for pathogen growth.
What pathogens are the leading cause of foodborne illness? Viruses
Viruses can survive cooler and freezer temperatures. True or False? True
Viruses can contaminate both food and water. True or False? True
Viruses can be transferred from person to person, from people to food, and from people to food-contact surfaces. True or False? True
Name two major foodborne illnesses caused by viruses. Hepatitis A and Norovirus
What is the most effective practice to prevent the spread of viruses? Good personal hygiene; specifically handwashing.
What foods are most commonly linked with the Hepatitis A Virus? Ready-to-eat food. Shellfish from contaminated water.
What are the most common symptoms of Hepatitis A? Fever (mild). General weakness. Nausea. Abdominal Pain. Jaundice (appears later).
What are the foods most commonly linked with the Norovirus? Ready-to-eat food. Shellfish from contaminated water.
What are the most common symptoms of Norovirus gastroenteritis? Vomiting. Diarrhea. Nausea. Abdominal cramps.
What symptoms are NOT associated with Hepatitis A? Vomiting. Diarrhea.
What symptoms are NOT associated with Norovirus gastroenteritis? Jaundice. General weakness.
What preventative measures should a Foodservice Operator practice to prevent the spread of Hepatitis A? Keep employees diagnosed with the illness out of the operation. Keep employees who have jaundice out of the operation. Wash hands. Minimize bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers
What preventative measures should a Foodservice Operator practice to prevent the spread of the Norovirus? Keep employees with diarrhea & vomiting out of the operation. Keep employees diagnosed with the illness out of the operation. Wash hands. Minimize bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers.
When certain bacteria are in favorable growing conditions, how much time does it take for their numbers to double? Twenty minutes.
What two illnesses are caused by the bacteria, Bacillus cereus? Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis: 1. Vomiting illness 2. Diarrhea illness.
What foods are commonly linked with the Bacillus cereus Vomiting illness? Cooked rice dishes.
What are the symptoms of the Bacillus cereus Vomiting illness? Nausea. Vomiting.
What foods are commonly linked with the Bacillus cereus Diarrhea illness? Cooked vegetables. Meat products. Milk.
What are the symptoms of the Bacillus cereus Diarrhea illness? Watery diarrhea. (No vomiting)
What is the most important preventative measure to prevent Bacillcus cereus gastroenteritis? Controlling time and temperature.
When re-heating food, what internal temperature should it reach to destroy the bacillus cereus bacteria? 165 degrees F.
Food that is not held at the right temperature or cooled properly has been time-temperature abused. True or False? True.
What illness is caused by the bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes? Listeriosis.
Listeria monocytogenes grows in cool, moist environments. True or False? True.
What foods are commonly linked with the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes? Raw meat, unpasteurized dairy products, ready-to-eat food, like deli meat, hot dogs, and soft cheeses.
What is the most common symptom of Listeriosis in pregnant women? Miscarriage.
What are the most common symptoms of Listeriosis in newborns? Sepsis. Pneumonia. Meningitis.
What is the most important preventative measure a Foodservice Operator can practice to prevent the spread of Listeriosis? Controlling time and temperature.
Name four additional measures a Foodservice Operator should practice to prevent Listeriosis. 1. Throw out any out-dated product. 2. Cook raw meat to minimum internal temperatures. 3. Prevent cross contamination. 4. Avoid using unpasteurized dairy products.
What illness is caused by the bacteria, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli? Hemorrhagic colitis.
What name is commonly used when referring to the bacteria, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli? E. coli.
What foods are commonly linked with E. coli? Ground beef (raw & undercooked). Contaminated produce.
What are the most common symptoms of Hemorrhagic colitis? Diarrhea (eventually becomes bloody). Abdominal cramps. Kidney failure (in extreme cases).
What is the most important preventative measure to practice to prevent illness from E. coli? Controlling time and temperature.
Name five additional practices to prevent illness from E. coli. 1. Cook food to minimum internal temperatures. 2. Buy produce from reputable suppliers. 3. Prevent cross-contamination of raw meat & ready-to-eat food. 4. Employees with diarrhea must stay home. 5. Employees with hemorrhagic colitis must stay home.
What illness is caused by the bacteria, Clostridium perfringens? Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis.
What foods are commonly linked with the bacteria, Clostridium perfringens? Meat and Poultry. Dishes made with meat and poultry, such as stews and gravies.
What are the most common symptoms of Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis? Diarrhea. Severe abdominal pain.
What is the most important measure to practice to prevent Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis? Controlling time and temperature.
What are 2 additional practices to prevent Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis in a foodservice operation? Cool and reheat food correctly. Hold food at the right temperatures.
What illness is caused by the bacteria, Clostridium botulinum? Botulism.
What foods are commonly linked with Clostridium botulinum? Incorrectly canned food Reduced oxygen packaged (ROP) food Temperature-abused vegetables, such as baked potatoes Untreated garlic & oil mixtures.
What are the most common symptoms of Botulism? Initially: Nausea & vomiting Later: Weakness, double vision, difficulty speaking & swallowing
Clostridium botulinum can grow without oxygen. True or False? True
What is the most important measure to practice to prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum? Controlling time and temperature
What are two other preventative measures that can be taken to prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum? 1. Hold, cool, and reheat food correctly. 2. Inspect canned food for damage.
What illness is caused by the bacteria, Salmonella spp? Samonellosis
What foods are most commonly linked with Salmonella spp? Poultry and eggs. Dairy products. Produce.
What are the most common symptoms of Salmonellosis? Diarrhea. Abdominal cramps. Vomiting. Fever.
What is the most important measure to practice to prevent the growth of Salmonella spp? Prevent cross-contamination
Name 3 additional prevention measures to prevent spreading Salmonella spp. 1. Cook poultry & eggs to minimum internal temperatures. 2. Prevent cross-contamination between poultry and ready-to-eat foods. 3. Keep foodhandlers who have been diagnosed with Samonellosis out of the operation.
What illness is caused by the bacteria, Shigella spp? Shigellosis
What foods are commonly linked with Shigella spp? Foods easily contaminated by hands, such as salads containing TCS food: potato, tuna, shrimp, macaroni, & chicken. Food that has made contact with contaminated water, such as produce.
What are the most common symptoms of Shigellosis? Bloddy diarrhea Abdominal pain and cramps Fever (occasionally)
What is the most important preventative measure to prevent Shigellosis? Practicing good personal hygiene, especially hand-washing.
Name 3 additional measures that are effective in preventing Shigellosis. 1. Keep foodhandlers who have diarrhea out of the operation. 2. Keep foodhandlers who have Shigellosis out of the operation. Control flies inside and outside the operation.
Which bacteria is commonly found in the hair, nose, throat, and infected cuts of humans? Staphylococcus aureus.
What illness is linked with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus? Staphylococcal gastroenteritis
Which foods are commonly linked with Staphylococcus aureus? Foods that require handling during preparation, such as: Salads containing TCS food, such as egg, tuna, chicken, & macaroni Deli meat
What are the most common symptoms of Staphyloccal gastroenteritis? Nausea Vomiting and retching Abdominal cramps
What is the most important preventative measure to prevent Staphyloccal gastroenteritis? Practicing good personal hygiene, especially hand-washing.
Name 3 additional preventative measures to prevent the spread of Staphylococcal gastroenteritis. 1. Cover wounds on hands and arms. 2. ALWAYS wash hands after touching the hair, face, or body. 3. Hold, cool, and reheat food correctly.
Which illnesses are linked with the bacteria Vibrio vulnificus & Vibrio parahaemolyticus? Vibrio gastroenteritis & Vibrio vulnificus primary septicemia.
What food is commonly linked with the bacteria Vibrio vulnificus & Vibrio parahaemolyticus? Oysters harvested from contaminated water
What are the most common symptoms of Vibrio vulnificus & Vibrio parahaemolyticus? Diarrhea, abdominal cramps & nausea, vomiting, low-grade fever & chills
People with chronic illnesses, such as diabetes or cirrhosis, who become ill with Vibrio vulnificus & Vibrio parahaemolyticus are in danger of developing a severe illness that may lead to death. What is the illness? Primary septicemia
The bacteria Vibrio vulnificus & Vibrio parahaemolyticus grow very rapidly in certain temperatures. What is the temperature range that contributes to rapid growth of the bacteria? Naturally warm waters that fall into the middle of the temperature danger zone.
What is the most important measure to practice to prevent Vibrio gastroenteritis & Vibrio parahaemolyticus? Purchase oysters from approved, reputable suppliers.
What other preventative measure can be taken to prevent Vibrio gastroenteritis & Vibrio parahaemolyticus? Cook oysters to minimum internal temperatures.
Many farm animals carry this bacteria naturally. What is the name of the bacteria? Salmonella spp.
Which bacteria does not need oxygen to grow? Clostridium botulinum.
Which is a spore-forming bacteria found in soil that can produce two different illnesses? Bacillus cereus
Which bacteria is found in the intestines of cattle and can cause humans to become ill when eaten in only a small amount? Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli)
Which bacteria grows in cool, moist environments and can be found in soil, water, and plants? Listeria monocytogenes
Which bacteria does not grow at refrigeration temperatures, but does grow very rapidly in the temperature danger zone. It is found in soil and forms spores that allow it to survive. Clostridium perfringens
Illnesses caused by parasites are as common as those caused by bacteria & viruses. True or False? False
Parasites cannot grow in food; they need a host to servive. True or False? True
Parasites can contaminate both food and water. True or False? True
The parasite Anisakis simplex causes what illness? Anisakiasis
What foods are commonly linked with the parasite Anisakis simplex? Raw & undercooked fish, including: Herring, cod, halibut, mackerel, & Pacific salmon
What are the most common symptoms of Anisakiasis? Tingling in throat. Coughing up worms.
What is the most effective preventative measure to prevent Anisakiasis? Purchase from only approved, reputable suppliers.
What other 2 preventative measures can be taken to prevent Anisakiasis? 1. Cook fish to minimum internal temperatures 2. If serving raw or undercooked fish, purchase sushi grade that has been frozen to the right time-temperature requirements.
The illness Cryptosporidiosis is caused by which parasite? Cryptosporidium parvum
Which foods are most commonly linked to Cryptosporidiois? Foods grown in, or watered with, contaminated water. Produce.
What are the most common symptoms of Cryptosporidiosis? Watery diarrhea. Abdominal cramps. Nausea. Weight loss.
What is the most effective preventative measure to prevent Cryptosporidiosis? Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers.
What other 3 preventative measures can be taken to preventCryptosporidiosis? 1. Use properly treated water. 2. Keep foodhandlers with diarrhea out of the operation. 3. Wash hands.
What is the name of the parasite that causes the illness, Giardiasis? Giardia duodenalis, also known as G. lamblia or G. intestinalis
Which foods are most commonly linked to Giardiasis? Foods grown in, or watered with, contaminated water. Produce.
What is the most effective preventative measure to prevent Giardiasis? Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers.
What are the most common symptoms of Giardiasis? Initially: Fever. Later: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea.
What are 3 additional preventative measures that can be taken to prevent Giardiasis? 1. Use properly treated water. 2. Keep foodhandlers with diarrhea out of the operation. 3. Wash hands.
Two parasites can be found in the feces of people affected with it. What are they? Cryptosporidium parvum & Giardia duodenalis.
Which parasite can be destroyed by cooking fish to a minimum of 145 degrees F for a minimum of 15 seconds? Anisakis simplex.
Fungi are pathogens that are found in air, soil, plants, water, and some food. True or False? True
Although they can make people ill, Fungi mostly spoil food. True or False? True.
Molds and yeasts are examples of Fungi. True or False? True.
Cooler or freezer temperatures will kill mold. True or False? False.
Some molds produce toxins. True or False? True.
If hard cheeses, salami, and firm fruits have mold on the exterior, they may still be used if 1 inch of the product is removed cut away. True or False? True.
Molds grow in almost any conditions, but they grow well in acidic food with little moisture. True or False? True.
Yeasts grow well in acidic food with little moisture. True or False? True.
If a food tastes or smells of alcohol, it is a sign that the food has been spoiled by yeast. True or False? True.
A light blue or grey discoloration or slime on jams or jellies indicates that is has been spoiled by yeast. True or False? False. The discoloration or slime is white or pink. It may also bubble.
James, jellies, syrup, honey, and fruit or fruit juice are examples of food that can be spoiled by yeast. True or False? True.
If yeast has grown on a food, it is acceptable to remove the discoloration and use the remaining product. True or False? False. Throw out any food that has been spoiled by yeast.
Biological toxins are made by pathogens, or they come from a plant or an animal. True or False? True.
Some fish toxins are a natural part of the fish. True or False? True.
Some fish toxins are made because the product has been time-temperature abused, allowing naturally occuring bacteria on the fish to make the toxin. True or False? True.
Some fish toxins are made when fish eat marine algae containing the toxin. True or False? True.
If a smaller fish that has eaten toxic marine algae is consumed by a larger fish, the larger fish will not carry the toxin. True or False? False.
Shellfish can become contaminated when they eat marine algae that have a toxin. True or False? True.
What fish toxin causes the illness, Scombroid poisoning? Histamine.
Which fish are commonly linked to carrying the toxin, Histamine? Tuna, Bonito, Mackerel, Mahi mahi.
What are the most common symptoms of Scombroid poisoning? Reddening of the face & neck, sweating, headache, burning or tingling in the mouth or throat; possibly diarrhea & vomiting.
What are the 2 preventative measures to prevent Scombroid poisoning? 1. Buy from approved, reputable suppliers. 2. Prevent time-temperature abuse during storage & preparation.
Ciguatera fish poisoning is caused by which fish toxin? Ciguotoxin.
Which fish are most commonly linked with the toxin? Barracuda, Grouper, Jacks, & Snaper.
Ciguatoxin is found in certain marine algae. True or False? True.
Cooking or freezing will destroy the Ciguatoxin. True or False? False.
What are the most common symptoms of Ciguatera fish poisoning? Reversal of hot & cold sensations, nausea, vomiting, tingling in fingers, lips, or toes, joint & muscle pain.
What is the most important preventative measure to prevent Ciguatera fish poisoning? Purchasing from approved, reputable suppliers.
What Shellfish toxin causes Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)? Saxitoxin.
Which foods are commonly linked with the toxin? Clams, Mussels, Oysters, Scallops.
Saxitoxin is common in colder waters, such as those of the Pacific and New England coasts. True or False? True.
What are the most common symptoms of PSP? Numbness, tingling of the mout, face, arms, & legs, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, &diarrhea.
Death from paralyis may result if high levels of the toxin are eaten. True or False? True.
What is the most important preventative measure to prevent PSP? Purchase only from an approved, reputable supplier.
What illness does the toxin Brevetoxin produce? Neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP).
Which shellfish are most commonly associated with NSP? Clams, mussels, & oysters.
Brevetoxin is found in the warmer waters of the west coast of Florida, the Guld of Mexico, and the Carribbean Sea. True or False? True.
What are the most common symptoms of NSP? Tingling & numbness of the lips, tongue, & throat; dizziness, reversal of hot & cold sensations, vomiting, diarrhea.
Some types of shellfish can become contaminated with Brevetoxin as they filter toxic algae from the water. True or False? True.
What is the most important preventative measure to prevent NSP? Purchase only from an approved, reputable supplier.
What shellfish toxin produces Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)? Domoic acid.
Cooking or freezing will destroy Domoic acid. True or False? False.
Which foods are commonly linked with Domoic acid? Clams, mussels, oysters, & scallops.
Domoic acid is found in the shellfish in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northweat and the East coast of Canada. True or False? True.
What are the most common symptoms of ASP? Initially: vomiting, diarrhea & abdominal pain. Possibly later: confusion, memory loss, disorientation, seizure, & coma.
What is the most effective preventative measure one can take to prevent ASP? Purchase only from an approved, reputable supplier.
Created by: Kathleen Munyer Kathleen Munyer on 2012-05-15



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