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Culinary Theory

A review of all terms and methods used in basic culinary theory

QuestionAnswer
What is an airline breast? a semi boneless breast with the skin and drumette attached
Albumin? the protein in egg whites inside of a raft that clarifies stock
Al Dente meaning "to the tooth" a bit chewy
Ala Carte menu menu where everything is priced individually
allemande compound sauce from veloute thickened with egg yolks and heavy cream, flavored with lemon juice
Antonin Careme master of the french Grande Cuisine
AP stands for?? As Purchased
Au sec: reduced to nearly dry
balloon whip used to whipping air into a mixture
barding wrapping in fat
battonet 1/4 by 1/4 by 2" cut
bay scallops smaller than sea scallops, 70 to 90 count
beurre blanc butter sauce made with white wine, butter, and shallots
Bechamel a mother sauce, made from scalded milk, an onion piquet, and white roux
Beurre manie small balls of butter and flour swirled into a dish at the last minute
bisque a soup made with fish or shellfish
the body of a sauce is?? the liquid it is made of
the body of a stock is??? it's weight on the palate
bordelaise compound sauce made from a demi-glace
Boulanger the first modern type restaurant owner, opened it in 1765
Bouquet garni a bouquet of fresh veggies and herbs tied with twine and used to flavor stocks, sauces, soups, etc
Braise combination cooking method using dry and then moist heat together
breading procedure flour, eggwash, then breadcrumbs
broth flavorful liquid from simmering meats and veggies for long time
buffalo chopper used to chop things in bulk
butterfly to cut in half, but leave attached, allows for more plate coverage
collagen connective tissue that DOES dissolve in moist heat
capon a castrated male chicken
catfish a freshwater fish, most commonly deep fried, aquafarmed in the US
Chasseur brown sauce flavored with shallots and white wine and mushrooms
China cap metal strainer with small holes
Chinois metal strainer with fine mesh to strain
Chlorophyll gives plants their green pigment, aids in photosynthesis
Chowder soup made from fish, shellfish, and or veggies
classic cuisine simplified grande cuisine, relies on culinary principles and techniques
clearmeat mix of eggwhites, ground meat and an acidic product, used to clarify broth
concasse peeled, seeded and rough chopped
consomme egg whites, ground beef, tomatoes and mirepoix
coquille the shell of a scallop, also used as a serving dish
cornish hen cross of a game hen and white rock
court bouillon poaching liquid
couscous small rolled bits of dough - pasta
convection the transfer of heat by either natural or mechanical means
croissant rich buttery crescent shaped roll made with flakey yeast dough
crustacean shellfish
cycle menu a menu that cycles through then repeats itself
deglazing using a liquid to release fond from bottom of pan
demi glace half brown stock, half brown stock, half reduced
dover sole the only true sole
duchesse potatoes with eggs, usually piped as a garnish
durum wheat hard wheat with high gluten
elastin connective tissue that DOES NOT dissolve in moist heat
EP Edible portion
Escoffier 5 mother sauces, classic cuisine, KISS, brigade system
executive chef head chef, overseas everything in the kitchen Chef de cuisine
Fannie Farmer stressed accurate measurements and made cooking a science
flavored oil oil infused with spices and flavors
foie gras an enlarged liver of a duck or goose
fond caramelized drippings in bottom of pan
fond blanc white stock
fond braun brown stock
french dip sandwich roast beef sandwich served with au jus to dip in
gazpacho cold soup with uncooked veggies
glacage browning or glazing
glace de viande brown syrupy sauce made by reducing brown stock
glace de volaille light syrupy glaze made by reducing a chicken stock
grand cuisine Careme's style, lavish displays, elaborate centerpieces, many courses
green shrimp headless, shell on
griddle flat cooking surface
grits ground dried hominy
gyro ground lamb wrapped in pita bread
HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
herb an aromatic plant used for flavoring
hotel pan 2 inch deep full size pan
IQF shrimp Individually quick frozen
italian dry pasta made from durum wheat
liaison mixture of heavy cream and egg yolks, must be tempered into mixtures
larding injecting with fat
lotte aka monkfish or angler
mandolin a manually operated slicer with adjustable blades
marbling streaks of fat throughout muscle
marinating soaking raw meat in seasoned liquid to absorb flavor and tenderize
market menu menu that changes with the seasons based on product availability
Masa Harina finely ground flour from hominy used for tortillas, breads, etc.
minestrone an italian vegetable soup
mirepoix 50 percent onion, 25 percent celery, 25 percent carrots
Three categories of mullosks Univalve, bivalve, cephalopod
monte cristo bread, ham, chicken, and cheese, dipped in egg and fried
MSP menu selling price
Nage aromatic court bouillon served with fish or shellfish
nouvelle cuisine new cuisine, lighter with more natural flavors, shorter cooking times
offal internal organs
onion piquet 1/6th of an onion, and a bay leaf attached by two whole cloves
P and D shrimp Peeled and deveined
panfry dry heat method using more fat and a lower temp.
Pita oval or round shaped bread leavened with yeast
Po Boy Sandwich new orleans style sandwich with fried oysters or shrimp
Point continued the nouvelle cuisine, believed should be a single dominant ingredient in each dish
Poivrade any sauce where peppercorns provide the dominant flavor
Polenta italian dish made by cooking corn meal with liquid into a large soft mass
portion control consistency, plate coverage, food costs, weigh all ingredients
prix fix menu complete meal for a set price
Quahog atlantic hardshell clam
recipe list of instructions for preparing an item
reduction allowing the sauce or liquid to reduce to desired thickness or consistency using heat
regional cuisine set of recipes based on local ingredients, traditions and practices
rondeau large, round pan with straight sides and loop handles
rotisserie cooking equipment that slowly rotates meat in front of a heating element
roux equal part fat and flour used to thicken
sachet sack of spices that season a soup or stock Parsley stems, peppercorns, thyme, bay leaf
salamander overhead broiler used primarily to finish or top brown foods
salmon anadromous fish, round and fatty
salsa usually cold, chunky mixture of fresh herbs, spices,fruits and veggies used as a sauce or dip
standardized recipes written instructions for producing quality and quantity of a specific food operation
static menu menu does not change, used by fast food joints, offer same items for each time of day
saute high heat, with clarified fat and correct pan. Dry heat cooking
sauteuse pan with sloped sides used to sauteeing
sautoir round pan with stright sides
sea scallops larger scallops in 20 to 30 count
skimmer AKA spider; used to remove food particles
slurry cold water and corn starch or arrow root, used to thicken
smoke point temperature at which fat starts to break down
spider hand tool with a mesh disk used to strain particles of food
standard breading procedure dredge in flour, then eggwash, then breadcrumbs
subcutaneous surface fat and fat between muscle
sweetbreads thymus gland of a calf or lamb
swimming method method of deep frying by dropping battered foods directly into hot fat
table d'hote menu offers complete meal for set price, same as Prix fix menu
tilt skillet large flat-bottomed pan used as a stockpot with a hand crank
venting cooling to 70 degrees before cooling in the refrigerator, set on bricks in sink, add ice to sink
vinegar thin sour liquid used as a preservative, cleaner, or cooking ingredient
white pepper peppercorns allowed to ripen until they turn red and then berries are allowed to ferment
whole wheat flour milled from the entire hulled kernel
working chef chef at a smaller establishment
yield serving, weight or volume
How do you sharpen a chef's knife? Hold at 20 degree angle using whet stone. Start at coarsest and move from heel to tip.
Does a steel sharpen a knife? No, it returns the edges to their form, but doesn't sharpen
What are two types of meal service a la carte and semi a la carte
3 basic types of rice long grain, medium grain, short grain
basmati rice grown in India
3 methods for cooking rice steamed, pilaf, and risotto
describe the 1-2-3 method for rice 1 part rice, 2 parts liquid, equals 3 parts cooked rice
herbs most commonly used in stocks parsley stems, peppercorns, bay leaves and thyme
when cooking cauliflower, adding an acid will do what? control the color
Are waxy potatoes good for french fries? No, they are too high in sugar and too low in starch
What is the best method for determining doneness of grains? tenderness
How do you know when pasta is cooked? they are al dente, or firm
What are the parts of the grain? Bran, endosperm, and germ
Name the five senses: sight (most important) sound, taste, touch and smell
3 types of roux white, blonde, and brown
What is the flour to fat ratio equal parts of each. Ex 1 part flour, 1 part fat
Name four fats that can be used Butter, oil, lard and animal fat
What are some moist cooking methods? braising, simmering, boiling, steaming, poaching, and stewing
what are some dry heat cooking methods? broiling, grilling, roasting,baking, deep frying, pan frying, and sauteeing
What are the effects of heat on food? GEMCC (Starches gelatinize) water evaporates, fats melt, sugars caramelize, and proteins coagulate
Methods of heat transfer? conduction, convection, radiation
Water boils at what temp? 212 degrees
What is the temperature difference from a conventional oven to a convection oven? 25 degrees less
temperature range for simmering? 180 to 205 degrees
temperature range for poaching? 160-180 degrees
simmering times for stocks fish- 1.5-2 hourspoultry- 3-5 hrsveal- 6-8 hrs
Should you ever boil a stock? No, it will disrupt the clarification
What is the max temp for blooming a yeast? 110 degrees
What is the temp for deep frying fat? 300 degrees to 375
At what temp do eggs begin to coagulate? 140 degrees
Roast turkey should be cooked to ? 165 degrees
Where should you insert the thermometer when checking the temp? The thickest part of the meat
What is the temp danger zone? 41-135 degrees
What is the most popular breakfast preparation? Eggs!
What is a frittata? an open faced omelet
How do you prepare basted eggs? sunny side up braise with hot grease
What do you add to a quart of water to poach eggs? 2 tsp Vinegar and 1 tsp. salt
Spreads do what to a sandwich? provide flavor and moisture
To get the max volume from whipping egg whites use a clean bowl, egg whites at room temp., fresh eggs
What are four measuring devices found in most kitchens? measuring spoons,measuring cups,portion scales,ladles
3 classes of poultry and cooking method for each? 1) fryer - frying2) stewing hen - stewing3) roaster - roasting
poultry is graded looking for what? tears and imperfections
The tenderness of poultry is determined by what? Age of chicken
a popular breed of poultry in Europe but not USA guinea
drawn means? gutted
dressed means? head, gills, scales, and fins removed
fillet a boneless side of fish
steak a cross cut of a round fish
how many fillets are in a flat fish? 4 fillets
How many fillets in a round fish? 2 fillets
Beef, poultry, and seafood inspections are voluntary or mandatory? seafood is voluntary, the others are mandatory
4 components of muscle tissue in a meat 1)protein, 2)fat 3)minerals 4) water
osso bucco is cooked using what cooking method? braising
Grades of beef are: prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter, and canner
The most popular grade of meat for restaurant? choice
New york steaks are cut from the what? strip loin
Rib eye are cut from the ? rib
Green meat? meat that hasn't been aged
How many ounces are in a gallon? 128 oz.
How many ounces in a quart? 32 oz
Ounces in a pint 16 oz
ounces in a cup? 8 oz.
A gallon has ___ quarts, ____ pints, _____cups and _____ tablespoons 4 quarts, 8 pints, 16 cups, and 256 tablespoons
How do you get menu selling price? Food cost divided by food cost percentage
Great 20th century chef who modernized food Escoffier
Broken glass is what type of hazard? a physical contaminent
Truth in advertising? Has to be what it says it is
total recipe cost is what? cost of the ingredients used to complete recipe
The most important part of the menu? Language
3 items that weight and volume are interchangeable? milk, water, and eggs
what is the most important quality of a deep fryer? the recover time
What type of cut do you use when size does not matter? Chop
Add fresh herbs when? at the end of cooking
when subbing dried herbs for fresh, use how much? 1/3 dry.
What has the highest smoke point? soy bean oil
Never use this for a dipping sauce! Marinade
Which is shorter, parboiling, or blanching? blanching, but both lock in color, kill bacteria and raw smell
what can't be made from a demi glace? allemande
what is the difference in white stock and brown stock? Caramelized bones
what is the difference between stock and broth? Broth uses meat, stock uses just bones
What isn't a traditional bisque? dark roux
what temp should hot cream be served at? 190 to 200 degrees
What is a classic thickener for bisque? rice
can you reduce a cream soup by boiling? No
Two types of fat? marbling and subcutaneous
What is the best method for cooking veal shank? braising
What color should lamb be when cooked? bright red and slightly springy
How are fish and shellfish graded? ABC
How do you prepare a lean fish? anything but grilling
Deep frying is best for what type of fish? Catfish
What is the best cooking method for trout? sauteeing
What is the best sauce for fish or shellfish? a light sauce, like a beurre blanc
grading eggs, you look for: clear thick whites, yolk firm and round, and well shaped shell. Grade AA
Rubbery scrambled eggs are a sign of what? overcooking
What does vinegar help do when poaching eggs? helps the eggs hold their shape
What type of egg is cooked over low heat with no turning or flipping? sunny side up
to make eggs benedict use: poached eggs
Store fresh veggies at what temp? 35 to 40 degrees F.
what isn't able to be preserved by drying? brussell sprouts
How do you prepare dry beans? soak and simmer
What is best for a wrap? tortilla
The biggest hazard in sandwich making? Cross contamination
Largest part of a grain kernel? endosperm
best potatoes for frying? russet potatoes
What type of rice is firm, separate and fluffy when cooked? Long grain
What is julienne 1/8th by 1/8th by 2" cut
Small dice? 1/4 by 1/4 by 1/4 " cut
fine julienne? 1/16 by 1/16 by 2" cut
medium dice? 1/2 by 1/2 by 1/2 cut
Large dice? 3/4 by 3/4 by 3/4 cut
Created by: DeckerH on 2009-12-09



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