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Image Acquisition & Evaluation

QuestionAnswer
In radiography of a large abdomen, which of the following is effective to minimize the amount of scattered radiation reaching the IR.....Use of close collimation, Use of compression devices, Use of a low-ratio grid? Why? Use of compression devices & close collimation. They both reduce scatter. A low ratio grid cleans up less scatter than a high ratio grid.
Which of the following methods that help to reduce the PRODUCTION of scattered radiation.....Compression, Beam restriction, Grid use? Beam restriction & compression
If a 6-inch OID is introduced during a particular radiographic examination, what change in SID will be necessary to overcome objectionable magnification......increase SID 6", decrese SID 6", increase SID 10", increase SID 42"? Increase SID 42"
Which of the following determines the amount of fluorescent light emitted from a fluorescent screen.....Thickness of the active layer, Type of phosphor used, kV range used for exposure? All of them
The major difference between excretory and retrograde urography is what? Retrograde studies do not demonstrate function.
Which of the following will best demonstrate the lumbosacral junction in the AP position....CR perpendicular to L3, CR perpendicular to L5–S1, CR caudad 30–35 degrees, CR cephalad 30–35 degrees? CR cephalad 30–35 degrees
Radiographic contrast is a result of which of the following....Differential tissue absorption, Emulsion characteristics, Proper regulation of mAs? Differential tissue absorption & Emulsion characteristics
Recorded detail depends on all the following except.....Quantity of filtration, Anode angle, Intensification factor of screens? The quantity of filtration. Filtration is unrelated to recorded detail.
Which of the following will have an effect on radiographic contrast....Beam restriction, Grids, Focal spot size? Beam restriction & grids affect radiographic contrast. Focal spot size affects recorded detail.
All factors remaining the same (SID/OID/kVp/mAs), if a 14 x 17-inch field is collimated to a 4-inch square field, the radiographic image will demonstrate which of the following.....More density, Less density, More detail, Less detail. Less density.
All factors remaining the same (SID/OID/kVp/mAs), if a 14 x 17-inch field is collimated to a 4-inch square field, the radiographic image will demonstrate which...higher or lower contrast? Higher or lower density? Higher contrast, lower density.
Does less scatter = higher contrast, or lower contrast? Less scatter = Higher contrast.
Are field size & scatter related to recorded detail? No
Impingement on the wrist's median nerve causing pain and disability of the affected hand and wrist is known as what? Carpal tunnel syndrome
Which type of error results in grid cutoff at the periphery of the radiographic image....Off-focus, Off-center, Off-level, Off-angle? Off focus
An increase in exposure factors usually is required in which of the following circumstances......Edema, Ascites, Acromegaly? Why is this? All of them. All those pathologic conditions attenuate more of the beam requiring an increase in technical factors to compensate for this.
Which of the following is an abnormal intensifying screen action....Fluorescence, Luminescence, Speed, Lag? What is it? What does it do? Lag. Lag occurs when an intensifying screen continues to fluoresce after the x-ray stimulation has terminated. This characteristic is undesirable and causes excessive density.
If the quantity of black metallic silver on a particular radiograph is such that it allows 1% of the illuminator light to pass through the film, that film has a density of what? 0.01
If a film is placed on an illuminator and 100% of the illuminator's light is transmitted through the film, that film must have a density of what? 100%
Which of the following structures will be filled with barium in the AP recumbent position of a sthenic patient during an upper GI examination......Duodenal bulb, Descending duodenum, Pyloric vestibule, Gastric fundus? The gastric fundus
Recorded detail is directly related to which....SID, tube current, focal-spot size? Which is recorded detail indirectly related? Recorded detail is directly related to SID & tube current. It is indirectly related to focal spot size. As focal spot size increases, recorded detail decreases due to more penumbra.
In the 45-degree medial oblique projection of the ankle, which of the following is correct.....the talotibial joint is visualized tibiofibular joint is visualized plantar surface should be vertical? The tibiofibular joint is visualized & the plantar surface should be vertical
Which of the following affects both radiographic density and intensifying screen speed.......Thickness of phosphor layer, Type of phosphors used, Thickness of spongy screen support? All of them.
At which portion of the x-ray beam is the effective focal spot the largest.....At its outer edge, Along the path of the central ray, At the cathode end, At the anode end? At the cathode end
If FOV is increased, does pixel size increase or decrease? If pixel size increases, does resolution increase, or decrease? Pixel size & FOV are directly related, as FOV increases, pixel size increases. Resolution & pixel size are inversely related, as pixel size increases, resolution decreases.
Which of the following may be used to reduce the effect of scattered radiation on the finished radiograph.......Grids, Collimators, Compression bands? Collimators & Compression bands
Component part(s) of x-ray film include which of the following......Phosphor layer, Gelatin emulsion, Adhesive layer? All of them
The function of the developer solution chemicals is which of the following....Reduce manifest image to a latent image, Increase production of silver halide crystals, Reduce the latent image to a manifest image, Remove the unexposed crystals from the film? To reduce the latent image to the manifest image.
Which of the following are true regarding lateral projection of lumbar spine.....MSP is parallel to the tabletop, Vertebral foramina well visualized, Pedicles well visualized, Intervertebral foramina well visualized, Disk spaces well visualized? MSP is parallel to tabletop, Pedicles are well visualized, Intervertebral foramina are well visualized, Disk spaces (Intervertebral joints) are well visualized.
Geometric unsharpness will be least obvious at which of the following.....At long SIDs, With small focal spots, At the anode end of the image. At which end is penumbra blur greatest at, the Anode end, or Cathode end? Geometric unsharpness will be least obvious at long SID's. Penumbra blur is greatest at the cathode end.
Cassette front material can be made of which of the following.....Carbon fiber, Magnesium, Lead? Carbon fiber & Magnesium.
Inadequate collimation in CR imaging can result in an image that is what.....too light, too dark, too noisy? Any of them.
To be suitable for use in intensifying screens, a phosphor should have which of the following characteristics.......High conversion efficiency, High x-ray absorption, High atomic number? All of them
Geometric unsharpness is directly influenced by which of the following.......OID, SOD, SID? Which is it indirectly related to? Geometric unsharpness is directly influenced by OID. Geometric unsharpness is indirectly related to SOD & SID.
Radiographic contrast is the result of which.....Transmitted electrons, Differential absorption, Absorbed photons, mAs selection? Differential absorption
Which of the following will result if developer replenishment is inadequate......Images with excessively high contrast, Images with excessively low contrast, Images with excessively high density, Dry, brittle films? Images with excessively low contrast
The amount of replenisher solution added as a film enters the automatic processor is related to which......Size of the film, Temperature of the solution, # of films processed? Size of the film & the # of films processed.
If single-emulsion film was loaded into its cassette with the emulsion facing away from the intensifying screen, the resulting image would demonstrate which.....decreased density, increased density, crossover, fog? Decreased density
Which is most likely associated with quantum mottle.......Decreased mAs, decreased SID, fast speed screens. Increased mAs, decreased kV, slow speed screens. Decreased mAs, increased kV, fast-speed screens. Increased mAs, increased SID, fast speed screens. Decreased mAs, increased kV, fast-speed screens.
How is SID related to exposure rate and radiographic density? As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density decreases.
Greater latitude is available to the radiographer in which of the following circumstances.......Using high-kV technical factors, Using a low-ratio grid, Using low-kV technical factors? Using high-kV technical factors & Using a low-ratio grid
Improper spectral matching between rare earth intensifying screens and film emulsion results in which.....Longer-scale contrast, Insufficient density, Decreased recorded detail, Excessive density? Insufficient density
An illness of unknown or obscure cause is said to be what? Idiopathic
What is anything that is or can be disease producing termed? Pathogenic
What is a disease that swiftly affects a large number of people in a particular geographic region? Epidemic
What is an illness that refers to or concerns a (body) system? Systemic
Compared to a low ratio grid, a high ratio grid will do which......Absorb more primary radiation, Absorb more scattered radiation, Allow more centering latitude? Absorb more primary radiation & Absorb more scattered radiation
When a slow screen film system is used with a fast screen film automatic exposure control system, the resulting image are what....Too light, Too dark, Have improved detail, Have poor detail? Are too light
How can the size of a particular structure or image can be calculated? Image size/Object size = SID/SOD
Exposed silver halide crystals are changed to black metallic silver by which.....Preservative, Reducers, Activators, Hardener? By the reducers
In what order should the following examinations be scheduled......Upper GI, Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), Barium enema (BE)? IVP, BE, UGI
Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to the differences between the male and female bony pelvis.....The female pelvic outlet is wider, The pubic angle is 90 degrees or less in the male, The male pelvis is more shallow? The female pelvic outlet is wider & The pubic angle is 90 degrees or less in the male.
The brightness level of the fluoroscopic image can vary with changes in which.....milliamperage, kilovoltage, patient thickness? All of them
With a given exposure, as intensifying screen speed increases, how is radiographic density affected? Radiographic density decreases as intensifying screen speed increases.
Which of the following can impact the visibility of the anode heel effect......SID, IR size, Screen speed? SID & IR size can impact the visibility of the anode heel effect.
Causes of grid cutoff, when using focused reciprocating grids, include which of the following.......Inadequate SID, X-ray tube off-center with the long axis of the lead strips, Angling the beam in the direction of the lead strips? Inadequate SID & X-ray tube off-center with the long axis of the lead strips
Most laser film must be handled how.......Under a Wratten 6B safelight, Under a GBX safelight, In total darkness, With high temperature processors. In total darkness
Shape distortion is influenced by the relationship between which.......X-ray tube and the part to be imaged, Part to be imaged and the image recorder, Image recorder and the x-ray tube? All of them
An advantage of coupling the image intensifier to the TV camera or CCD via a fiber-optic coupling device is which......Its compact size, Durability, Ability to accommodate auxilary imaging devices? Its compact size & Durability
Which of the following improve recorded detail.........using a small focal-spot size, largest practical SID, shortest possible OID, and slowest practical screen/film combination and avoiding motion of the part being imaged. All of them. Recorded detail is improved using a small focal-spot size, largest practical SID, shortest possible OID, and slowest practical screen/film combination and avoiding motion of the part being imaged.
What is the name of the device that exposes a film emulsion with an optical step wedge having a number of densities ranging from white to black? Sensitometer
High-kilovoltage exposure factors are usually required for radiographic examinations using which.......water-soluble iodinated media, a negative contrast agent, barium sulfate? High kV exposure factors are usually required for exams using Barium Sulfate.
The functions of the automatic processor's recirculation system include which......Keeping the solution in contact with the film emulsion, Maintaining uniform temperatures, Mixing and agitating solutions, Add quantities of solution as required? Keeping the solution in contact with the film emulsion, Maintaining uniform temperatures & Mixing and agitating solutions.
Which of the following is (are) associated with subject contrast.......Patient thickness, Tissue density, Kilovoltage? All of them
When is the latent (invisible) image produced? The latent image is formed when film emulsion is exposed by x-rays, or light.
During which of the following is the manifest image formed during film screen.....On the exposure of film emulsion, In 1st half of fixer process, in 2nd half of fixer process, In the developer solution? The manifest image is formed in the developer solution.
An increase of kV will have which of the following effects.....Increased scatter, Increased exposure rate, Increased radiographic contrast? Which is increased? Why is this. An increase in kV will increase the scatter production & the exposure rate will increase. Radiographic contrast will decrease with increase kV. Since kV increases scatter & as there's increased scatter, increased fog which decreases radiographic contrast.
Which of the following must the x-ray tube in CT be capable of.......High speed rotation, Short pulsed exposures, Withstanding millions of heat units? All of them
Resolution in CR increases during which of the following........As laser beam size decreases, As monitor matrix size decreases, As PSP crystal size decreases? Resolution in CR increases as laser beam size decreases & PSP crystal size decreases.
Is digital resolution directly, or indirectly related to the matrix size? Why? Directly related. As matrix size increases resolution increases since the pixel size decreases.
When screen speed increases, does radiographic detail increase, or decrease? What about when screen speed decreases? When screen speed increases, radiographic detail decreases. When screen speed decreases, radiographic detail increases.
In general, as the intensification factor increases, which of the following happen......radiographic density increases, screen resolution increases, recorded detail increases? Generally as the intensification factor increases, radiographic density increases?
Which of the following may chemical fog be attributed to......Excessive developer temp, Oxidized developer, Excessive replenishment? All of them
How does screen speed affect radiographic density? When screen speed increases, radiographic density increases. When screen speed decreases, radiographic density decreases.
Which of the following technical changes would be best to remedy the effect of very dissimilar tissue densities....High speed screen, High ratio grid, High kV, High mAs? Use of high kV can even out the high contrast.
What is the absorption of useful radiation by a grid called.....Grid selectivity, grid cleanup, Grid cutoff, Latitude? Absorption of useful radiation by a grid is grid cutoff.
Film exhibiting excessive density emerges from the automatic processor. What might this be attributable to....Developer temp too high, Chemical fog, Under-replenishment? The developer temp is too high resulting in over development with chemical fog.
What is likely to result in using single emulsion film film in an IR that has 2 intensifying screens? Why is this? Decreased density. Single emulsion film placed in dual screen cassette will only receive half the intended exposure.
Which of the following will a 15% decrease in kVp accompanied by a 50% increase in mAs result in....shorter scale of contrast, increase exposure latitude, increase radiographic density, decrease in recorded detail? A shorter scale of contrast.
Which of the following factors impact recorded detail......Focal spot size, subject motion, SOD? All of them.
Which of the following can impact the visibility of the anode heel effect......SID, IR size, Screen speed? SID & IR size
At which portion of the x-ray beam is the effective focal spot the largest? Why is this? At the cathode end due to the anode heel effect.
Where is the microswitch for controlling the amount of replenishment used in an automatic processor located? At the entrance roller.
What is the purpose of the thin layer of lead that is often located behind the rear intensifying screen in an IR? To prevent scattered radiation fog.
All of the following have an effect on radiographic contrast except.....Photon energy, Grid ratio, OID, Focal spot size? Focal spot size
How does increased kV effect the scale of radiographic contrast? Does this result in higher or lower contrast? The higher the kV, the longer the scale of radiographic contrast resulting in lower contrast.
Which device is used to give film emulsion a pre-determined exposure in order to test its response to processing called? What device is used to read the densities? A sensitometer gives a pre-determined exposure. The densities on the film are read using a densitometer.
Low kV factors are indicated for radiographic exams using which.....Water soluble iodinated contrast media, Negative contrast agent, Barium Sulfate? Low kV factors are indicated for water soluble iodinated contrast media & negative contrast.
Base + Fog is result of which.......Blue tinted film base, Chemical development, The manufacturing process? All of them
A decrease in kV will result in which of the following.....Decrease in optical density, decrease in contrast, decrease in recorded detail, decrease in image resolution? A decrease in optical density.
How does a decrease in kVp affect the scale of contrast? Does this result in higher, or lower contrast? A decrease in kVp results in a shorter scale of contrast resulting in higher contrast.
The effect described as differential absorption is which of the following....Responsible for radiographic contrast, Result of attenuating characteristics of tissue, Minimized by high kVp? All of them.
Which of the following is associated with subject contrast......Patient thickness, Tissue density, kVp? All of them
Film base is currently made of which of the following materials....Cellulose Nitrate, Cellulose Acetate, Polyester, Glass? Polyester
Which colors are orthochromatic film sensitive to? Which colors are blue sensitive film sensitive to? Which colors are green sensitive film sensitive to? Orthochromatic film is sensitive to all colors but red. Blue sensitive film is sensitive to blue, violet & UV light. Green sensitive film is sensitive to blue, violet, UV & green.
Which of the following will will influence recorded detail......Screen speed, Screen film contact, Focal spot? All of them
When is x-ray film emulsion nost sensitive to safe light fog.....Before exposure & development, After exposure, During development, At low humidity? After exposure
Which of the following has the greatest effect on radiographic density......Aluminum filtration, kV, SID, Scattered radiation? SID due to the inverse square law
The continued emission of light by a phosphor after the activating source has ceased is termed what? Phosphorescence
If FOV is changed, does it affect the size of the matrix size? Does the FOV affect the pixel size? No. Yes, as FOV increases, pixel size increases.
Exposed silver halide crystals are changed to black metallic silver by which.....Preservative, Reducers, Activators, Hardeners? The reducers. the exposed silver halide crystals are reduced to black metallic silver.
Geometric unsharpness (Magnification) is directly influenced by which....OID, SOD, SID? Geometric unsharpness is directly influenced by OID.
Which of the following may be used to reduce the effect of scattered radiation on a finished radiograph......Grids, Collimators, Compression bands? All of them
How does screen speed relate to radiographic contrast? As screen speed increases, radiographic contrast increases.
If a film exhibiting excessive density emerges from the automatic procesor, which may it be attributable to.....Developer temp too high, Chemical fog, Under-replenishment? Developer temp too high & chemical fog.
Which of the following is most likely to occur from using a 14x17 field size @ 30" SID....Production of Quantum Mottle, Density variation @ opposite ends of IR, Production of scatter radiation fog, Excessively short scale contrast? Why is this? Use of a large field size @ short SID would increase the divergence of the beam. The anode heel effect would be accenuated due to the beam divergence. The density would be greater @ the cathode end of the tube in comparison to the anode end.
Which portion of the straight line portion would most likely represent a density of 1.0.......Toe, Shoulder, Dmax, Straight Line portion? Where is this portion located between? What is the correct value range for exposure? The straight line portion which is in between the toe & shoulder. The straight line portion has a value of 0.25 - 2.5 which is the acceptable range for exposure.
If the quantity of black metallic silver on a particular radiograph allows 10% of the illuminator light to pass through the xray image, what does the image have a density value of? 1.0
The processor rollers that are out of solution & function to transfer the film from 1 solution to another are called what? The crossover rollers
Which of the following would occur with an introduction of 6" OID affect image contrast......Contrast would increase, Contrast would decrease, Contrast wouldn't change, Scale of contrast would not change? Why is this? Contrast would be increased based on the 6" air gap. An air gap will function by not allowing some of the scatter radiation to reach the IR which will increase contrast.
As the conversion efficiency of intensifying screen phosphors increases, which of the following will occur......Patient dose increases, Noise increases, Speed Increases? Why? Noise & speed will increase with increases intensifying screen speed. With the increase speed, less dose technique is required which will decrease patient dose, but with the increased speed noise in the form of quantum mottle increases.
According to the line focus principle, a small anode angle will do which of the following.......Improve recorded detail, Improve heat capacity, Lessen Heel effect? A smaller anode angle will improve recorded detail & lessen the heel effect.
What is the function of the replenishment system? Add quantities of solution as required
Created by: jamestkelley on 2012-04-21



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