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Chapter 1-Production & properties of x-ray beam

QuestionAnswer
What is the device that creates the x-ray beam? x-ray tube
What is another name for X-ray tube? x-ray insert
What is used to define the size of the x-ray beam to the area or body part being irradiated? Collimator box
What, contained within the collimator box, blocks the portion of the beam that is not needed? lead plates, shutters
What is the only useful part of the x-ray beam? The part that is projected toward the patient
-electric current running through the stator, that produces a magnetic field that turns the metal rotor electromagnetic induction
Cathode contains ___ filaments and has a ____ charge. 2 ; negative
How many of the two filaments is heated during a exposure? only one
The filament is heated in order to do what? to liberate electrons
What is the process of heating filament in order to liberate electrons called? thermionic emission
What is filament made from and why? tungsten bc of its high melting point
What controls the degree of filament heating? mA - milliampere
As the temp increases, the rate of emission will ? increase
What repels and contains the electrons in a small space so that they can be accurately focused on the anode disk? the focusing cup
- "prep" the tube by heating one of the filaments so that electrons are emitted and hover in the tube in an electron cloud Boost-and-hold stage
The boost is considered the _______. thermionic emission
The time before the exposure is made? The hold
The tungsten layer of the tube inhibits? Heat dissipation from the tube
The __________ allows for better heat distribution over the face of the disk when the disk is bombarded by electrons during an exposure. rotating anode
The area on which the electrons bombard the anode disk is called _______. focal spot
The flow of electrons from cathode to anode constitutes the _____________. Tube current
Tube current is measured in? mA, milliamperes
What determines the speed at which the electrons move from cathode to anode ? kV, kilovolt
Raising the kV will make the electrons travel? Faster
The energy of the x-rays produced within the disk depends what? the speed or kinetic energy of the electrons
Thicker anatomical parts require what kind of kV setting? thinner parts? thicker = higher thinner = lower
The nucleus of an atom contains what? protons & neutrons
the electrons of an atom still feel an electrostatic attraction to the protons in the nucleus, this is called _________________ binding energy
Inner-most shell has higher or lower binding energy? higher
What is the binding energy for level K? 69 kV
The sudden deceleration causes release of kinetic energy in the form of x-radation, known as: brensstrahlung radiation, brems radiation.
_______ occurs when a neutral atom either loses or gains an electron. Ionization
________ occurs when a neutral atom loses one of its electrons. Positive ionization
_________ occurs when a neutral atom gains an electron. Negative ionization
Why is the x-ray beams considered to be heterogeneous or polyenergetic? bc it contains many different energies ranging from low to high
Doing what to the beam will protect the patient by absorbing the lower energy x-rays? filtering
What are the two types of radation are x-ray beams made of? Brems & Characteristic
Name the 4 conditions necessary for the production of x-ray: 1. boiling/separation off of electrons 2. production of high speed electrons 3. concentration of electrons 4. sudden slowing or stopage of electrons
The boiling or separation of electrons is a process known as? thermionic emission or the edison effect
The controling factor of thermionic emission is? mA
What effect on density does thermionic emission have? increases it
increasing the heat in the filament, what effect does that have on the # of electrons being boiled off? increases them
What controls the quantity of photons? mA
What starts the boiling process? hitting the rotor switch
How do you overcome the negative effect of space charge? increase kVp
What is the controlling factor of the speed and strength of the photons? kVp
increase the speed, will do what to the kinetic energy produced? increase it
What handles the concentration of electrons? focusing cup
What is the difference between photon speed and electron speed? Electron speed can vary; photon speed is constant
What controls the sudden slowing or stopping of electrons? target or anode
What will determine the amt of projectile electrons? mA
What makes up the majority of the x-ray beam? brems radiation
The more energy the projectile electron loses per interaction, the _________ the brems photon will be. stronger
What are the 3 courses of action an electron can take that is characteristic of Brems radiation? -attracted to proton and curved - repelled & curved -direct hit on neclues, stopped and all is kinetic energy
If the photon is stopped instantly, it will be weak?strong? strong
In order for (K) Characteristic radiation to be produced, the projectile electron has to have energy that is __________________ than the binding energy of the k-shell. greater than or equal to
What type of characteristic radiation is the only one that is strong enough to be useful? K-characteristic
If kVp is able to produce k-characteristic radation, atom is _________ because electron is moved out of K shell. ionized
What are the 3 regions of electromagnetic spectrum? Visible light, radio frequency, x-radiation
List the following in order from lowest/longest to shortest/highest according to the electromagnetic spectrum; gamma, radio, infra-red, x-ray radio, infra-red, x-ray, gamma
What are the 3 reasons for reduced intensity of x-ray emission at low energies? 1.electrons dont all reach peak kinetic energy 2.brems radiation may happen many times getting weaker each time 3.filters remove the low energy photons
- how often the crests of a wave occur frequency
What is the symbol of frequency? Nu
What is the unit of measurement of frequency? Hz
The higher the frequency the _______ the photon is. stronger
Increaseing kVp will have what effect on the kinetic energy of the electron? increases the kinetic energy
Increasing the kVp will have what effct on the strength of the x-ray photon created? increase the strength
increasing the kVp will do what to the speed of the projectile electron that is traveling from the (-) to (+) increases the speed
Increasing the kVp will have what effect on the frequency of the photon? increases the frequency
Increasing the kVp, will have what effect on the wavelength of the photon? decreases the wavelength
-the distance between the crests of a wave wavelength
What is the symbol of the wavelength? What unit of measurement is used? Lambda Angstrom
The longer the wavelength the ______ the photon. weaker
-refers to the strongest photon in the beam of radiation minimum wavelength
What effect on wavelength does increasing the kVp have? shortens the wavelength
Strong photon has what frequency and wavelength characteristics? high frequency short wavelength
What is the symbol of the speed of light? C
What is the speed of light? 186,000 miles/sec
What is the formula that shows the relationship of frequency and wavelength to light? C= nu(lambda)
What is the wave particle duality phenomena? A photon (pure energy) acts as tho it has the characteristics of matter
Increasing the kVp will have what effect on the projectile electron's kinetic energy? increase it
Increasing the kVp will have what effect on the efficiency of x-ray production? increase it.
Created by: erikasmith28 on 2012-04-11



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