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400TOEFL

400 must have

QuestionAnswer
Crops Food Crop
abandon(v.) To leave; to give up To save their lives, the sailors had to abandon the sinking ship.
adversely (adv.) In a harmful way; negatively Excessive rainfall early in the spring can adversely affect the planting of crops.
aggregate (adj. n. v.) Gathered into or amounting to a whole It is impossible to judge last year’s performance without knowing the aggregate sales numbers. انبوه توده جمع جمع شده مجموع
fertilize (v.) To supply with nourishment for plants by adding helpful substances to the soil This farm fertilizes tomatoes more than any other crop. حاصلخیز کردن بارور کردن کود دادن
nourishment غذا قوت خوراک تغذیه To supply with nourishment for plants by adding helpful substances to the soil
intensify (v.) To increase in power; to act with increased strength Jacob’s long absence intensified his certainty that he should marry Rose.
irrigation (n.) The supplying of water to dry land In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland for irrigation. ابیاری
obtain (v.) To gain possession of; to get After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to obtain the job.
photosynthesis (n.) The process by which green plants make their own food by combining water, salts, and carbon dioxide in the presence of light. Oxygen is a by-product of the process of photosynthesis.
precipitation (n.) Water that falls to the Earth’s surface In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of precipitation ensures rich, green plant life. بارش
disaster مصیبت حادثه بد بدبختی
anticipate (v.) To expect; to sense something before it happens By placing sensors in earthquake-prone areas, scientists can anticipate some tremors in time to warn the public.
tremor لرزش تکان لرزه
prone متمایل مستعد دمر درازکش By placing sensors in earthquake-prone areas, scientists can anticipate some tremors in time to warn the public.
catastrophic (adj.) Extremely harmful; causing financial or physical ruin The architect died in a catastrophic elevator accident. مصیبت بار فاجعه بر انگیز
ruin نابودی خراب کردن
collide (v.) To come together with great or violent force As usual, their holiday was ruined when their in-laws’ views on politics collided with their own تصادم کردن، بهم خوردن
eruption (n.) A sudden, often violent, outburst The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 caused 57 deaths and immeasurable change to the face of the mountain.
famine (n.) Severe hunger; a drastic food shortage The potato famine in Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century caused large numbers of Irish people to emigrate to America. قحطی،خشکسالی
drastic موثر قوی جدی شدید
flood (n.) An overflowing of water; an excessive amount The constant rain and poor drainage system caused a flood in town
opponent مخالف،حریف خصم طرف The political party sent out a flood of letters criticizing their opponents.
impact (n.) A strong influence The speech about the importance of education made an impact on me.
persevere (v.) To keep going, despite obstacles or discouragement; to maintain a purpose The hikers persevered despite the bad weather and the icy trail. پشتکار داشتن،استقامت به خرج دادن،ثابت قدم ماندن
obstacle گیر مانع پاگیر سدراه
plunge (v.) To go down suddenly; to decrease by a great amount in a short time He jumped off the diving board and plunged into the pool. شیرجه رفتن،ناگهان داخل شدن The value of the company’s stock plunged after its chief executive was arrested. سقوط سنگین
unleash (v.) To release a thing or an emotion When they saw the strange man on their property, they unleashed their dogs. He is from such an unemotional family, he will never learn to unleash his feelings.
Evolution تکامل،تغییر شکل،تحول
adapt (v.) To adjust to the circumstances; to make suitable Dinosaurs could not adapt to the warmer temperatures. The teacher adapted the exercises for his more advanced students.
diverse (n.) Various; showing a lot of differences within a group India is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world.
evolve (v.) To develop; to come forth Modern-day sharks evolved from their ancestor Eryops, which lived more than 200 million years ago. بیرون دادن،استنتاج کردن،نمو کردن
feature (n.) Part, characteristic The best feature of this car is its heated seats.
generation (n.) A group of people born at about the same time As older managers retired, a new generation of leaders took control of the company.
inherent (adj.) Naturally characteristic; always found within something, because it’s a basic part of that thing No job can be interesting all the time. Boredom is inherent in any kind of work.
harvest The migration of farm workers from one state to the next depends primarily on the harvest. خرمن محصول دروکردن
ape Because of the shape of its throat, an ape does not have the physical ability to speak. میمون،بوزینه
survive (v.) To continue living (despite some danger or illness) After getting lost in the mountains, Gordon survived by eating wild plants and catching fish.
constraint (n.) Something that restricts thought or action The constraints of military life kept Eileen from seeing Private Morris more than once a month.
contamination (n.) Being made less clean by a germ or hazardous substance The contamination in the river came from the factory located just upstream. الودگی کثافت
deplete (v.) To greatly decrease the supply of a resource or material The prolonged war depleted the country’s national treasury. تهی کردن،خالی کردن
dispose of (v.) To throw away; to get rid of; to kill She disposed of her unwanted possessions before moving. مرتب کردن She disposed of her unwanted possessions before moving. ترتیب کار ها را دادن
tyrant ستمگر
elementally (adv.) In terms of elements; basically Elementally, coal and diamonds are the same.
emission (n.) Sending out from a small space into the general environment; a substance discharged into the air The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of pollutants into the air. صدور خروج نشر
extinction (n.) Complete disappearance; the end of existence Human beings have caused the extinction of many other species. خاموش سازس انقراض اعدام
reservoir (n.) A place where a liquid is collected and stored Cult members threatened to poison the town’s water reservoir.
shrink (v.) To become reduced in size, amount, or value If you dry your clothing on the “high heat” setting, they may shrink.
accustomed خوگرفته،معتاد
adjust (v.) To change; to get accustomed to something Travelers are advised to adjust their watches before arriving in the new time zone.
arbitrary (adj.) Chosen simply by whim or chance, not for any specific reason The decision to build a school in Blackberry Township was arbitrary, without any thought to future housing patterns.
whim هوس،خیال،وهم
denominator (n.) The number written below the line in a fraction In the fraction 1⁄2, the number 2 is the denominator.
lowest common denominator the most basic and unsophisticated things that most people share
exponentially (adv.) At a very fast rate In Turkey, the value of the lira has decreased exponentially in the last several decades.
infinitesimal (adj.) Immeasurably small The number of contaminants in the water was infinitesimal, so the water was safe to drink.
contaminant جسم آلوده
maximize (v.) To increase or make as great as possible A coach helps each athlete maximize his or her potential.
parallel (adj.) Being an equal distance apart everywhere The street where I live runs parallel to the main road through town.
proportion (n.) A part in relation to the whole The average employee spends a large proportion of each workday answering e-mails.
rate (n.v.) The cost per unit of a good or service; the motion or change that happens in a certain time. Postal rates in Japan are among the highest in the world. Some grasses grow at the rate of one inch per day.
succession توالی،جانشینی،ردیف، وراثت To organize or arrange in succession Volunteers have been asked to sequence the files and organize the boxes.
accuracy (n.) Precision; exactness The research department checks all our articles for accuracy of facts before we print them.
adjacent (adj.) Next to Even though the villages are adjacent to each other, their residents speak different languages.
compress (v.) To press together To make the foundation stronger, they compressed the soil before pouring the concrete.
feasibly (adv.) Practically; in a way that can work Scientists can’t feasibly bring energy from deep ocean currents to where it is needed -on land.
gut (v.) To empty or hollow out In order to remodel the house, we must first gut it and throw away all the old fixtures. احشا،پرخوری،حریصانه خوردن،غارت کردن
integrally (adv.) In a whole or complete manner Writing and spelling are taught integrally as part of the reading program.
overlap (v.n.) To lie over part of something; to have elements in common One of the two assistants will likely get fired, since most of their duties in the office overlap.
retain (v.) To keep or hold The rain fell so heavily that the banks of the river could not retain all the water.
seep (v.) To pass slowly for a long time, as a liquid or gas might As the containers rusted, the toxic waste seeped into the ground. چکه کردن،چکه،تراوش
rust زنگ،زنگ زدن
outsiders Most companies have a social structure that can’t be understood by outsiders. خارجی،بیگانه
circulate (v.) To move throughout an area or group; to move along a somewhat circular route The gossip circulated quickly through the small town. Blood circulates more quickly during physical exercise.
corrode (v.) To be slowly weakened by chemical reactions Sitting in salt water, the old coins corroded and became very easy to break. خوردن،پوسیدن،زنگ زدن
derive (v.) To come from, usually through a long, slow process The Cyrillic alphabet was derived from the Greek alphabet.
expeditiously (adv.) Quickly and efficiently Using carrier pigeons, the military commanders exchanged messages expeditiously.
implement (v.) To make use of; to carry out Not until after the new software was installed could we implement the new filing system. اجرا کردن،تکمیل کردن،وسیله،الت
innovative (adj.) Ahead of the times; novel The innovative use of props and lighting drew many favorable comments.
maintenance (n.) The act of keeping something in good condition The only problem with living in such a big house is that it requires a lot of maintenance.
imitation تقلید،پیروی،بدلی،جعلی simulation
combustion (n.) The process of burning When air quality is poor, combustion of materials in a fireplace is prohibited.
prohibit منع کردن،تحریم،منع
convey (v.) To transport from one place to another; to transmit or make known A messenger conveyed the prince’s letter to the commander of the army.
discretely (adv.) Separately; distinctly In order to understand how the engine worked, each component needed to be studied discretely.
permeate (v.) To spread or flow throughout; to pass through or penetrate The smell of cooking permeated the entire apartment building. نفوذ کردن ، سرایت کردن ، نشت کردن
solar (adj.) Of, or relating to, the sun The ancient society kept time with a solar calendar.
trigger (v.) To set off or initiate I was certain any mention of politics would trigger a big argument. ماشه،ماشه چیزی را کشیدن،رها کردن،راه انداختن
acquisition The act of taking possession of something Our recent acquisition of over 2,000 books makes ours the biggest library in the region. فراگیری، اکتساب، استفاده ، (حق. ) مالکیت.
anomaly (n.) Something unusual White tigers get their beautiful coloring from a genetic anomaly.
degrade (v.) To reduce in value or strength The roads in cold or wet areas of the United States degrade faster than those in warm, sunny regions.
gap (n.) Opening; a big difference in amount or quality The small gap between the walls in the old house caused cold drafts to come in.
indisputable (adj.) Beyond doubt; unquestionable The members of the jury found her guilty because they found the facts of the case indisputable. بطور غیر قابل بحث، بطور مسلم
intervene (v.) To come between A good mediator intervenes only as much as necessary to settle a dispute between other parties. حائل شدن .مداخله کردن
mediator میانجی، دلال
dispute مشاجره ، نزاع، جدال کردن
intuitively (adv.) By means of a natural sense about things that are hard to observe Many mothers know intuitively when something is wrong with their children. بصیری،ذاتی
recede (v.) To move back or away from After the age of 30, his hairline began to recede further back from his forehead. پس رفتن
retrieve (v.) To bring or get back Most dogs can be trained to retrieve objects that their owners have thrown. باز یافتن،پس گرفتن
cultivation (n.) Preparing the land to grow crops; improvement for agricultural purposes With the development of land cultivation, hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place. کشت زراعت تربیت ترویج
Created by: baharcham on 2012-03-09



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