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400TOEFL2

400 must have(19)

QuestionAnswer
coincide (v.) Happen or exist at the same time The Viking attacks on western Europe coincided with an abnormally warm period in the Earth’s climate. همزمان بودن ، باهم رویدادن ، منطبق شدن
consequence (n.) A result, often one much later in time than the cause One consequence of global warming may be the flooding of low lying islands.
diminish (v.) Make something smaller or weaker; become smaller or weaker The Protestant Reformation diminished the power of the Roman Catholic Pope. کم شدن ، نقصان یافتن ، تقلیل یافتن
longitude (n.) A system of imaginary lines running from north to south along the Earth’s surface, where each line is numbered from 0º to 180° west or east The prime meridian, a line running through Greenwich, England, is marked as 0° longitude. درازا، طول جغرافیائی
milieu (n.) General environment or surroundings Many Vietnam veterans did not feel comfortable in the antiwar social milieu of the 1970s. اجتماع، قلمرو، دور وبر، اطراف
veteran کهنه کار، کهنه سرباز، سرباز سابق، کارآزموده
Orwellian (adj.) Frightening and overcontrolled by a government that interferes in nearly every aspect of personal life Biometric devices like eye-scanners allow an Orwellian level of government knowledge about everyone’s location.
reconciliation (n.) Coming back together peacefully after having been enemies South Africa avoided a bloodbath after apartheid by setting up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission اصلاح، آشتی، مصالحه ، تلفیق
allocate (v.) To give out different amounts for different purposes The budget allocates $58 billion to the military and only about $2 billion to education. اختصاص دادن ، معین کردن .تخصیص دادن
commodity (n.) A thing that can be bought and sold, such as grain, oil, or wood Tulip bulbs were one of the most valuable commodities in seventeenth-century Holland. متاع،کالا
decline (v.) To decrease in power or amount America’s railroads declined because the automobile dominated American life.
equity (n.) The value of one’s share in an investment Barnard’s equity in the business was one-third, or about $350,000. قاعده انصاف، انصاف بیغرضی، تساوی حقوق
investment سرمایه گذاری
gross ناخالص
per capita (adv.) For each person Research shows we’re likely to sell 15 light bulbs per capita per year in medium-sized cities.
regulate (v.) Control according to a set of rules Trading on the New York Stock Exchange is regulated by officials of the exchange and by federal law.
subsidy (n.) Money given by a government or other organization to support an activity Federal subsidies to grain farmers have helped them stay in business despite three years of bad weather. اعانه،کمک مالی
tangible (adj.) Obviously real because it can be seen, touched, or otherwise observed One tangible benefit of putting electrical cables underground is a clearer view of the sky. قابل لمس، محسوس، پر ماس پذیر، لمس کردنی
wealth توانگری، دارائی، ثروت، مال، تمول، وفور، زیادی
accumulate (v.) To build up a large amount of something Over several generations, the Hardington family accumulated vast wealth by buying and selling land.
affluence (n.) Wealth and the style of life that goes with it Mohadzir grew up amid affluence, which poorly prepared him for his grad student days in crowded apartments with no servants. فراوانی، وفور
amid درمیان ، وسط
elite (adj.) Belonging to a special, honored group Messner is an elite climber who recently ascended an 8,000-meter mountain without extra oxygen. برگزیدن ، نخبه ، زبده ، گلچین ، ممتاز
impoverish (v.) To make a person or group poor The collapse of the steel industry impoverished several counties in eastern Ohio. فقیر کردن ، بی نیرو کردن ، بی قوت کردن ، بی خاصیت کردن
county بخش، شهرستان
luxury (n.) Extreme comfort, beyond what anyone needs Automakers try to give their cars an image of luxury by including extras like heated seats and satellite tracking systems.
collapse فروریختن ، متلاشی شدن ، دچار سقوط واضمحلال شدن ، غش کردن ، آوار
nobility (n.) A group of socially prominent people with special titles given by a king or queen, such as “duke”or “countess” In the Middle Ages, the nobility supposedly followed a code that required them to take care of poorer people who lived near their estates. نجابت، اصالت خانوادگی، طبقه نجبا
prominent برجسته ، والا
prestige (n.) Honor and respect for being better than the average The Grassleys enjoyed the prestige of living in the historic town, but they did not feel at home there. حیثیت، اعتبار، آبرو، نفوذ، قدر ومنزلت.
privileged (adj.) Able to enjoy special advantages because of one’s position (usually because of being born into a wealthy or powerful family) Despite his privileged position in one of America’s most powerful families, the politician tried to portray himself as an ordinary person. امتیاز دار، دارای امتیاز یا حق ویژه ، مصون
prosper (v.) To do very well in one’s business or personal life Vargas prospered after finally patenting his new inventions. کامکار شدن ، رونق یافتن ، موفق شدن ، کامیاب شدن ، پیشرفت کردن
patent مفتوح، آزاد، محسوس، حق ثبت اختراع،
working class (n.) People with low-paying (often unskilled) jobs who are not poor but who are not securely in the middle class The Farrelly family, like other members of the working class, were proud of their jobs and did not want any handouts from charity or the government. طبقه کارگر، مربوط به طبقه کارگر و زحمتکش
handout نوبت بازی، اعانه
acquire (v.) To get something, usually something with special value or meaning Bart hoped to acquire the 1898 D Indian Head penny, which would make his collection complete. بدست آوردن ، حاصل کردن ، اندوختن ، پیداکردن
assess (v.) To estimate the value of something The Barnes building was assessed at $1.3 million, but it can probably sell for much more than that. تشخیص دادن ، تعیین کردن ، بستن ، مالیات بستن بر، خراج گذاردن بر، جریمه کردن ، ارزیابی
asset (n.) A possession that has positive value چیز با ارزش و مفید، ممر عایدی، سرمایه ، دارائ
hazardous (adj.) Dangerous Parents have to be careful not to buy children’s clothes and toys made of hazardous materials
jointly (adv.) Together with one or more other parties In most states, a husband and wife are assumed to own all their possessions jointly.
lease (v.) To rent something for a long time (several months or years) Some drivers prefer to lease a car rather than buy one.
liability (n.) Legal responsibility for harming a person or property; a disadvantage Before you go river rafting, you sign a document releasing the trip leaders from liability in case of injury. مسئولیت، دین ، بدهی، فرض( درمحاسبات ) بدهکاری
proprietor (n.) Owner, usually of a business or a building The proprietor of Hekman’s Windows is Nels Hekman, grandson of the people who established the factory. مالک ، ملاک ، متصرف، صاحب حق طبق کتاب
safeguard (v.) To protect A burglar-alarm system safeguards our house when we go away on vacation.
burglar دزد، سارق منازل
sole (adj.) ONLY Many people have wanted to invest in Harry’s publishing business, but he remains the sole owner.
invest گذاردن ، نهادن ، منصوب کردن ، اعطائ کردن سرمایه گذاردن .
compensate (v.) To give an employee money or other things in exchange for the work he or she does My pay doesn’t properly compensate me for my efforts, but my other benefits, like health insurance, fill in the gap. تاوان دادن ، پاداش دادن ، عوض دادن ، جبران کردن
enterprising (adj.) Creative in thinking of ways to make money Immigrants are often among the most enterprising members of society, partly because anyone brave enough to make an overseas move is likely to be a risk-taker. عمل تهورآمیز، امرخطیر، اقدام مهم، ( مانند تاسیس کارخانه وغیره )، سرمایه گذاری، تشکیلات اقتصادی، مبادرت بکاری کردن ، اقدام کردن
exploit (v.) To take advantage of; to treat inconsiderately in order to profit The foreign mining company exploited our copper resources and then simply left. (.n): رفتار، کردار، عمل، کاربرجسته ، شاهکار، (.vt): بکار انداختن ، استخراج کردن ، بهره برداری کردن از، استثمار کردن
incentive (n.) A possible benefit that motivates a person to do a certain thing This city’s willingness to support its public schools gave us an incentive to move here with our two young children. انگیزه ، فتنه انگیز، آتش افروز، موجب، مشوق
inconsiderate بی ملاحظه ، بی فکر، سهل انگار، بی پروا.
industrious (adj.) Willing to work hard The Dutch settlements in Ottawa County were founded by industrious farmers who objected to frivolous behavior such as dancing. ماهر، زبر دست، ساعی، کوشا
frivolous سبک رفتار، سبک ، پوچ، بیهوده وبیمعنی، سبکسر، احمق.
marginal (adj.) Not very significant or effective Our new advertising campaign had only marginal success, raising sales by a mere 3 percent
mere مرداب، محض، خالی، تنها، انحصاری، فقط.
merit (n.) Value; success based on one’s work, not on luck Pay raises at our company are based on merit, as determined by a committee of managers شایستگی، سزاواری، لیاقت، استحقاق، شایسته بودن ، استحقاق داشتن
promote (v.) To move someone to a higher position in a company Because of his excellent handling of the Vredeman account, Jim Harris was promoted to vice president. ترفیع دادن ، ترقی دادن ، ترویج کردن
vice president ایب رئیس جمهور، نایب رئیس، نیابت ریاست
resign (v.) To quit one’s job Because of controversy over his leadership style, Morton resigned from his job as president. استعفا دادن از، دست کشیدن
controversy هم ستیزی، مباحثه ، جدال، ستیزه ، بحث
distill (v.) to remove one liquid from a mixture of liquids by boiling; to get something valuable from a confusing mix of ideas The forest peoples of Southeast Asia distill an alcoholic drink called arak from a paste of palm berries. تقطیرشدن ، عرق گرفتن از، چکاندن
berry دانه ، حبه ، تخم ماهی، (گ . ش. ) میوه توتی، توت،
paste خمیر، چسب، سریش، گل یا خمیر، نوعی شیرینی، چسباندن ، چسب زدن به ، خمیر زدن
entrepreneurial (adj.) Able to create business opportunities from a wide variety of circumstances Many engineers of the 1970s made great computers, but only a few were entrepreneurial enough to see the business possibilities in the new machines. کارگشا، مقدم کمپانی، موسس شرکت، پیش قدم درتاسیس
haggle (v.) To argue back and forth about a price The customer and the shopkeeper haggled over the silver plate for more than an hour. چانه ، چانه زدن ، اصرار کردن ، بریدن
intrepid (adj.) Fearless For nearly 200 years, only the most intrepid colonists would cross the Appalachian Mountains.
merchant (n.) A person who makes a living by selling things The spice merchants of the eastern markets charged top prices to the Dutch and British sailors, who had come too far to sail away without buying. بازرگان ، تاجر، داد وستد کردن
proportionately (adv.) In an amount appropriate to each of several recipients The food aid was distributed proportionately per family, with larger families receiving more.
prototype (n.) The first one made of a machine or system The airplane manufacturer uses robots to test every prototype, just in case there is a problem with the design. نخستین بشر، اصل ماده ، نخستین آفریده ، نمونه اصلی، شکل اولیه ، مدل پیش الگو، پیش گونه .نمونه اولیه
shuttle (v.) To move back and forth often between two places The small jet shuttles between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore nearly every two hours. ترنی که فقط در مسیر معینی آمد ورفت کند، لرزنده ، رفت وآمدن کردن
advocate (v.) To speak out in favor of something Some environmentalists advocate removing large dams from the Columbia River. دفاع کردن ، طرفداری کردن ، حامی، طرفدار، وکیل مدافع
authority (n.) The power to make decisions, to tell others what to do. The governor has the authority to call the legislature together for emergency sessions. قدرت، توانائی، اختیار، اجازه ، اعتبار، نفوذ، مدرک یا ماخذی از کتاب معتبریا سندی، نویسنده ئ معتبر
legislature هیئت مقننه ، مجلس، قوه مقننه
bitterly (adv.) Strongly and with a lot of bad feelings Senator Thomas bitterly opposed the movement to design a new state flag.
coalition (n.) A group of several different groups or countries that are working together to achieve a certain goal. Several local churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples formed a coalition to promote understanding among people of different religions. ائتلاف، پیوستگی، اتحاد موقتی.
inaugurate (v.) To bring into public office; to start formally An effort to bring electric service to farms and small towns was inaugurated with the Rural Electrification Act of 1936. گشودن ، افتتاحکردن ، بر پا کردن ، براه انداختن ، دایر کردن ، آغاز کردن
policy (n.) An approved way for approaching a certain kind of situation The policy said that government money could not be given to any private hospital. سیاست، خط مشی، سیاستمداری، مصلحت اندیشی، کاردانی، بیمه نامه ، ورقه بیمه ، سند معلق به انجام شرطی، اداره یاحکومت کردن
approve تصویب کردن ، موافقت کردن (با)، آزمایش کردن ، پسند کردن ، رواداشتن
poll (v.) To find out a small group’s opinion so that you can guess what a much larger group thinks The newspaper polled 500 registered voters and found that only 27 percent were in favor of expanding the city zoo. .رای گرفتن ، نمونه برداشتن ، سر شماری کردن
chronologically (adv.) In order according to time Allen’s book is arranged chronologically, from the First Crusade in 1095 to the fall of Granada in 1492. بترتیب وقوع.بترتیب تاریخی، دارای تسلسل تاریخ
Created by: baharcham on 2012-03-18



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