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Praxis II (0353)

Study Guide Questions

QuestionAnswer
Theorist contributed to the understanding of human social-emotional development by constructing the Behavioral Theory. Skinner
Theory that promotes the idea that students learn best through observation. Bandura's Sociological Theory
A delay in _____ means lacking the ability to understand the functional use of language or engage in typical conversations. Pragmatics
A serious and on-going issue regarding program supports for student with exceptional needs is the area of? Assistive Technology
A language problem where a student lacks the ability to understand and comprehend information that is presented refers to... Receptive Language
What is the key component for parents of a 2 year old with mental retardation the will be moving from an early intervention program to another program next year? (To ensure NCLB and standards are considered) An effective transition plan
A 5 year child has problems remembering names of colors and can only count to three. He stumbles often and speaks in three word sentences. What is the most likely domain for a potential developmental delay? Cognitive
Team that shares goals, utilizes on-going communication, and shares responsibilities for student's program. Collaborative team
Physical skill development is made up of what four skills? Sensory integration; Fine Motor; Gross Motor; and Perceptual Motor
Team that conducts independent assessments in their disciplines and meet to share information and develop a plan for a student with interventions and strategies defined. Interdisciplinary team
This exceptional student category is most affected by the lack of adaptive skills. Mental Retardation
Provision of law that requires members of the IEP meeting discuss where the student will receive their special education service; what the related services must be; and how she will access her general education. Continuum of Services Option
Characteristics of an exceptionality condition that are related to genetics or trauma are defined under the major category of _______ causes. Medical
Using the least restrictive environment scale, the term self-contained program is synonymous with the _____ model Segregated
A student who fails to achieve age-appropriate developmental skills and exhibits a delay in adaptive behaviors may qualify for special education services with what disability? Mental Retardation
Under IDEIA, what are some of the individualized related services that students with disabilities might be entitled to? Occupational therapy; interpreter; speech therapy; transportation; counseling; paraprofessional
Confidentiality of exceptional children is protected under the law and should be explained to the students according to the ________. Procedural Safeguards
Three different types of interventions used through special education services are: Preventative; remedial; and Compensatory
IEP is a written plan for a student with a disability that describes: levels of performance; annual goals; related services, accomodations, involvement in the general education programs, participation in state testing andd descriptions of specific services
If a student continually fails to use expected age-appropriate speech sounds and is demonstrating difficulty with pronunciations of certain letters and words, she will probably receive services for an: Articulation Disorder
What is the significant difference between an IEP and IFSP? The focus on family and child
Giftedness is the combination of what two factors? Intelligence and Creativity
Using functional words in an instructional situation and occasionally taking the students into the actual environment Authentic Learning.
Second largest group of students in the exceptional student category receiving special services in schools. (10-15%) Gifted and Talented
An approach in which the classroom environment is designed so individual students with a range of abilities will have access and participation in the general education classroom. Universal Design
Enhances memory through the use of key words, acronyms, or acrostics. May be useful for students with autism, traumatic brain injury, and emotional disturbance. Mnemonic strategy
It is estimated that _____ % of the students receiving special education services also receive services for an identified speech or language impairment. 50 %
A break down of a sequenced task into smaller component parts or steps so a student can more easily complete the task. Adaptive behaviors are MOST often delivered this way. Chained Response
Degree to which a behavior is repeated Intensity
A lesson that allows for the extension of the same lesson presented for children who possess differing abilities. Content and assignments can be constructed in levels. Tiered lesson
Curriculum that offers students with exceptional conditions the opportunity to learn skills that are necessary to use on a daily basis. Functional curriculum
Extends civil rights to individuals with disabilities in education, employment, and other community settings. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
This act permits federal funds to students considered ecomomically disadvantaged, who demonstrate limited English proficiency or had a disability while also being identified as gifted or talented. Jacob K. Javitis Gifted and Talented Student Education Act
Early intervening services is also known as response to intervention RTI
Protects the privacy of all students' educational records FERPA Family Education Rights and Privacy Act
This assessment involves the use of an informal observation of the student interacting the environment during a regular school schedule, so the teacher could watch the student throughout the day and gather information. Ecological assessment
Primary goal is for all children to be grade level proficient by 2014 NCLB, no child left behind 2001
a formal standardized measure that evaluates a student's ability to acquire skills or gain certain knowledge. Aptitude test
Extended civil rights to individuals with disabilities by prohibiting discrimination in education, employment and other community settings Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Ruling that every child with a disability has the right to receive an individualized education program with supportive services that are deemed appropriate and necessary Board of Education v. Rowley
Case that suppored a family's preference to educate their child who had mental retardation in the general education classroom Oberti v. Board of Education 1993
Approach to learning that uses teaching methods and strategies that are visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic Multi-modal learning strategies
Observations are used to evaluate a student with a disability in the area of behavior. Functional Behavior assessment
Residential (institutions, group homes), employment (compteitive, sheltered, supported) and recreation (hobbies,leirsure skills, transportation) are the three main areas that must be considered with what type of placement? Community Based Placements
What must be conducted to determine the reason for the student's situation and to decide whether there was a relationship of the student's behavior to the action? A Manifestation Hearing
Transition plans for adult services must begin by age 16 and include what 5 items? education; employment; training; independent living and recreation (leisure activities)
Who supported the Constructivist Theory that focuses on students engagin in actively creating things and constructing mental models which includes experiments, hands-on learning and discovery based learning opportunites. Piaget
Five main components of an IEP goal: Conditions; Performance; Criteria; Assessment; Standards
8 Essential elements of instruction Anticipatory set presented; Objective and purpose explained; Input provided (step by step); Modeling of task used Check for understanding; Allow guided practice; Give closure; Allow independent practice
Part B of IDEIA focuses on students with disabilities for what ages? 3 through 21
Part C of IDEIA focuses on students from birth to age 3. What is included that focuses on the child and the family needs? IFSP
The ability to identify the sounds of language, know how words sound and how they might be represented in written language Phonolgical awareness
The ability to recognize and interpret sensory data presened visually and ability to understand the differences. Visual perception
Word awareness, ability to rhyme and manipulate phonemes are competency skills for ________ awareness? Phonological Awareness
Visual discrimination, visual memory and letter recognition are comptency areas for _____ ? Visual perception
This case required that without exception, children with disabilities must be provided a free and appropriate education. Timothy v. Rochester School District
In this federal law, funds were provided specifically for students considered economically disadvantaged,limited English proficient or disabled if also identified as gifted or talented Jacob K Javitis
A primary factor in the diagnosis of mental retardation is the lack of appropriate ______? Adaptive behavior skills
Although it is NOT category in special education under federal law, it is considered a category of exceptional students in the public schools. Gifted and Talented (G/T)
Maslow Humanism
Skinner Behaviorism
Erikson Psychosocial
Bandura Social Learning
Gardner Multiple Intelligences
Kohlberg Moral Reasoning
Freud Psychoanalytical
The systematic use of sounds, signs or written symbols for the purpose of communication or expression Language
Receptive language Ability to understand and comprehend information that is presented
Ability to communicate feelings, thoughts, and ideas through words, gestures, sign systems, assistive devices and so on Expressive language
Using movements of the mouth area to make speech sounds Articulation
Knowledge of successful and appropriate language use such as in conversation Pragmatics
The meaning that language communicates; it governs vocabulary development Semantics
A system of combining words into sentences with rules that govern how words work together in phrases, clauses and sentences Syntax
Piaget a Cognitive Theorist, influenced perceptions about cognitive domain.
The first area of growth and learning that a child experiences Physical Development
Large muscle movement such as in the torso, neck, arms and legs Gross Motor
Small muscle movement of hands, fingers, feet toes and face Fine Motor
Use of sensory information such as tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive Sensory-integration
How muscles coordinate movements with the information received through the environment by the senses Perceptual motor
Are a composite of abilities based on a child's age and the cultural mores of the family Adaptive behaviors
Includes problems related to diseases, illnesses, trauma, genetics, fine and gross motor, sensory input and sensory perception Medical/Physical Characteristics
Includes cognitive and meta-cognitive deficits, low academic achievement, poor memory, attention problems, hyperactivity, and perceptual disorders Educational Characteristics
Includes affective behaviors, poor social skills, poor self-confidence, poor motivation, and debilitating mood states Social Characteristics
Includes various behaviors, adaptive behavior deficits, disruptive behaviors, and withdrawal Pschological characteristics
Communicatin and language deficits, impaired social relationships often interacting with objects and people in unusual manners, difficult behaviors and atypical reactions to sensory stimuli Autism
Exhibits inappropriate internalizing and externalizing behaviors, atypical emotions and disruptive behaviors and lacks skills for developing positive relationships Emotional Disturbance/Behavioral Disorder
difficulties processing linguistic information and using spoken language to communicate, problems with social relationships, deficits in emotional maturity and delays in academics Hearing impairment
Mental Retardation Deficits in adaptive behaviors, problems with learning related to cognition, difficulites with memory, issues with problem solving, delays in social skills, difficulties generalizing skills, and attention problems
Orthopedic Impairment Physical problems such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and spina bifida, possibly requiring adaptions with devices and equipment
Other Health Impairment Conditions of medical problems with limited strength, vitality and alertness such as diabetes, epilipsy, attention deficits and disease
Specific Learning Disability Achievement is not commensurate with abilities and demonstrates difficulites with listening, reasoning, memory, attention, social skills, perception, and processing information which may emerge with problems in reading, writing, written language and math
Speech/Language Impairment Difficulites using expressive and receptive language, delays in pragmatics and problems with fluency, voice and articulation
Traumatic brain injury Difficulties in areas of cognition, memory, attention, judgment, and problem solving as well as behavioral problems.
Visual impairment Problems with developing language concepts, impaired motor development and mobility, lack of social adjustment skills and problematic relationship interactions
The most rapidly increasing category for exceptional students Autism (A)
A disability of language in which the individual has problems understanding written words (reading). Dyslexia
The fourth largest category for exceptional students Emotional Disturbance/Behavioral Disorder (ED/BD)
This category is the second largest group of students receiving services in schools- believed to be underidentified and under served Gifted and Talented (G/T)
The largest category of students served at about 50 percent of school age children Learning Disorder (LD)
The third largest category of exceptional students Mental Retardation (MD)
The most commonly acquired disability in chidren Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
A low incidence disability Vision Impairment (VI)
Caused by neurobiological conditions, abnormal brain development, genetics, mulitple biological causes and environmental factors Autism
Linked to biological factors and environmental factos as causes Emotional Disturbances/Behavioral Disorders
Most common causes are genetics, illness, prematurity, disease and noice induced Hearing impairment
Causes classified as either biomedical, environmental, or unkown. Mental Retardation
Primarily related to illness, disease, trauma accident or injury Orthopedic Impairment, Traumatic Brain Injury or Other Health Impairment
Causes can be brain damage, heredity,biochemical imbalance and environmental Specific learning disability
Causes include damage or dysfunction of a specific part of the body, environmental factors, cognitive impairments, hearing loss, brain injury or disease Speech/Language Impairment
Causes are linked to changes or damage to the optical, muscular or nerve system Visual Impairment
Duration The measure of the length of time a student engages in a particular behavior
Degree of severity The measure of how problematic or complicated a particular behavior is
Extinction A reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior is withheld, so the behavior will decrease until it no longer exists
Frequency The amount of time (how often) that behavior occurs
Intensity The degree to which a behavior is repeated
maintenance The extent that a previously learned behavior continues after the intervention to support it has been ended.
Purpose of IDEIA 1. ensure all children w/disabilities get free and appropriate educ. 2. early intervention services 3. necessary tools to improve education 5. assess effectiveness of the education for children with disabilities
No child with disabilities can be excluded from public education Zero reject (IDEIA)
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Children with disabilities have the right to be educated with non disabled students to the maximum extent
Requires that parent and student rights regarding assessment, placement, and service implementation of education program be instituted Due process procedures (Procedural safeguards)
Based on Section 504, it extends civil rights to individuals with disabilities in private sector employment, public services, public accommodations, transportation and telecommunications. ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act 1990)
1. Stronger accountability of testing 2. Increased flexibility to schools of federal funds 3. Additional options for parents re education 4. Focus on curriculum and instruction methods NCLB (No Child Left Behind 2001)
Education Consolidation Act 1982 Merged the federal office of Gifted and Talented with other federal programs and states receive block grants to determine which programs get funding
1954 Brown v. Board of Education Education must be equal for all children
1967 Hobson v. Hansen Tracking system for regular and special education students based on intelligence scores was discrimination
1972 Mills v. Board of Education Determined that financial problems cannot be a reason for the lack of appropriate programs for children with disabilities
1979 Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. The commonwealth of Pennsylvania Established the right for all children with mental retardation to a free public education
1979 Armstrong v. Kline Ordered schools to provide extended school year services for students with disabilities who may regress over long periods without attending formal school programs
1982 Board of Education of the Hudson School District v. Rowley Upheld that each child with a disability has the right to an individualized program and supportive services deemed appropriate and necessary.
1984 Irving Independent School District v. Tatro Forced the school to provide non-physician required medical services to allow a physically impaired student to attend school
1998 Honig v. Doe Ruled that students with disabilities may not be excluded for misbehavior that is disability related, but services could cease if the behavior was not related to the disability.
1989 Timothy v. Rochester School District Upheld that all children with disabilities must be provided a free and appropriate public education without exception
1993 Zobrest v. Catalina School District Determined a parochial school should be provided the assistance of a related service pertaining to the disability and that these findings did not violate the constitution of church and state.
1993 Oberti v. Board of education Ruled to support a family preference to educate a child with mental retardation in the general education classrooms
1999 Cedar Rapids v. Garrett F. Ruled that medical services necessary to a student with a disability to access and benefit from special education must be provided by the shcool as long as the service does not require a physician
Advocacy The process of supportin the abilities of and promoting the causes for persons with exceptional needs
moving from one major service program to another Transition
Term used to describe biased reactions to those with disabilties Handicapism
Three main areas of community-based placements Residential; Employment; Recreation
Theorist that believe that an individual constructs the acquisition of new information and skills based on prior knowledge Congnitive - Piaget & Gestalt
These theorist believe that learning is an active process in which the learner must be involved. Constructionist- Piaget
Theory of study that human behavior is based on motivation and drives and the functional significance of emotions Psychodynamic- Frued; Brucke; Jung
This theory emphasizes a systematic approach to learning and instructin Behavioral- Skinner
This learning theory says that students learn through observation Sociological- Bandura
Theory based on the study of how humans develop within their specific environments Ecological
A collaborate approach that utilizes the expertise of specific related service providers such as speech language pathologists, the occupational therapist, the physical therapist and medical personnel. Therapuetic
Simplest form of collaboration that includes communication and cooperation so student services are ensured delivery Coordination
Process in which professionals work with one another by directly communicating and sharing expertise to improve services to students Consultation
Effective tool for inclusion settings Co-teaching
Professionals with defined roles, working independently of one another Multidisciplinary Team
Members conduct independent assessmenst, but unline the multidisciplinary team, this team works to promote communication and collaboration Interdisciplinary tearm
Highly recommendeed team model demonstrates coordination and involvement- difficult to coordinate all schedules at times Transdisciplinary team
The provision that relates to a range of placement and service options for students with special needs Continuum of services
Instructional supports or services necessary to access instruction or the learning environment and demonstrate individual knowledge- no changes to the curriculum Accomodations
Actual changes to the curriculum to meet specific needs Modifications
Curriculum that demonstrates student interactions in the environment in order to instruct students in a functional and age appropriate skills Behavioral-based curriculum
Curriculum that provides age appropriate activities that are discovery-based and interactive such as DAP Cognitive development curriculum
Curriculum that uses functional skills training to support transition into the community Life skills curriculum
Curriculum that improves social skills such as personal interactions, following directions, increasing self competence and using appropriate behaviors Social Skills curriculum
Curriculum that helps develop knowledge and skills to support independence in school, community, employment, personal, social and daily living situatins Functional curriculum
The teacher provides the information and content Explicit instruction
The focus is on the student as an active and involved learner who constructs knowledge by using previously learned information Implicit instruction
Placement of students in educational activities according to performance and academic levels Ability grouping
A measure of the engagement of the learner in tasks Active student response
A change made to the environment or curriculum Adaptation
Instruction using real world projects and activities to allow students to discover and explore Authentic learning
Breaking down the compenent parts of a task- step by step sequencing Chained response
a technique in which a student performance is reinforced so the student will continue to perform more complex tasks in the sequence Chaining
Oral responses in unison Choral responses
Strategy to remember large chunks of information Chunking
Sematic and systematic clues to aid in completing sentences Cloze procedure
demonstrating concept knowledge by applying the information to other settings without prompts from teacher Concept generalization
Techniques used to aide organization and delivery of curriculum such as guided notes, organizers and visual displays Content enhancements
a strategy for helping a student and eventually fading out the support as he gains mastery contingent teaching
classroom is divided into groups and work together to complete a task cooperative learning
provides assistance to ensure adequate support of instruction cues and prompts
individualizing instruction to develop strengths and remediate weakness diagnostic-prescriptive method
addressing various abilities, strengths and weaknesses of learners differentiated instruction
approach of teaching with specific goals, active learner engagement and positive reinforcement for student performance- synonymous with explicit instruction Direct instruction
The process of using measures of student performance and behavior, including tests, to make educational decisions Assessment
The process of determing the ability or performance level of students Measurement
Assessment--->Measurement--->Test Order of terms from general to most specific
This was the original large-group achievement test (1923) Sanford Achievement Test (SAT)
The ability to adapt to the environment by developing independent personal and social behavior and by adjusting to changes in the environment Adaptive behavior
An evaluation approach that measures performance based on progress in the curriculum rather than in relation to scores on tests Curriculum-based assessment
Involves participation of children and youth with disabilities in the general education classroom and in the general curriculum with appropriate aids and services Inclusion
Refers to retaining students with disabilities in the "mainstream" of education rather than placing them in seperate programs Mainstreaming
Testing that matches a test's difficulty with a test taker's ability automatically based on responses CAT- Computer Adaptive Testing (Weiss)
Steps in the Assessment Process 1. Screening 2. Determining Eligibility 3. Instructional intervention 4. Measuring progress
Coordinates screening and other activities associated with identifying students special needs Child-study teams
Brief, easy to administer tests, rating scales, checklists, and direct observation techniques given individually or in groups. They measure overall performance, not specific strengths or weaknesses. Screening instruments
Determining the nature and severity of a learning problem and deciding eligibility for special education services Elibibility process
Appraisal method that is the basis of assessment in the IEP process Diagnostic-prescriptive model (Test-teach-test-teach method)
Curriculum based assessment that is a regular part of daily instruction Instructional intervention
Why do we use Assessment in the Instructional Intervention Process? 1. to identify instructional needs 2. to establish intervention priorities 3. to develp instructional objectives 4. to evaluate curriculum and materials
Involves establishing minimum criteria for receiving a passing grade Pass/Fail Grading
Enables a teacher to assign grades in more than one area Multiple grading
Checking on student achievement during a period for a specific opportunity to perform and recording the response Direct measurement
Students engage in active learning with lessons designed and overseen by the teacher but managed by the students Facilitated groups
A measure that encourages practice of skills to improve the accuracy and rate of use. Fluency building
The ability to use skills learned across various settings Generalization
A visual-spatial organization of information to help students understand presented concepts. Graphic organizers
Providing opportunities to gain knowledge by offering cues, prompts, or added sequential information Guided practice
Specific areas or activities that enhance the curricular content and allow independent or small group instruction Learning centers
An approach that teaches students how to learn and remember particular content Learning strategy
A procedure that provides cues and prompts, while gradually removing them so students can perform and respond independently Mediated scaffolding
A strategy that enhances memory through key words, acronyms, or acrostics mnemonics
A method that helps make connections between the material to be learned and the process to learn it by acting out sequences while students observe and then imitate the task Modeling
Change the content, the material or delivery of instruction Modification
The nine areas of learning that are addressed in classroom instruction: Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential Multiple intelligence strategies
Procedures that involve activities interesting to students with naturally occuring consequences Naturalistic teaching
The practice of assessing large groups was first introduced by? The Army in World War I
The purpose of the first intelligence test was to? Identify students who should be excluded from school
The evaluation approach that has teacher made tests, classroom assignments, homework assignments and teacher made impressions to make assessment decisions? Curriculum based assessment
What is the basis for the concept adaptive behavior? Functional and practical abilities
Instruments for measuring performance and skills of children from birth to 6 years of age are usually referred to as _______ scales? Developmental
Which step in assessment process involves monitoring program effectiveness? Process measuring
What are the steps in the assessment process? Screening Eligibility Intervention Progress measuring
Which step in the assessment process relies on formal, individually administered diagnostic tests? Eligibiliy
Under the guidance of a teacher, a non-disabled student wit competencies in a particular area works with a student with a disability who needs assistance Peer tutoring
An approach that identifies the skills to be taught and uses direct daily measure of the student's performance to acquire skills Precision teaching
A technique in which a visual, auditory, or tactile cue is presented to facilitate the completion of a task or to perform a behavior Prompting
A program technique to teach students to overcome an exceptionality through training and education remediation
continual work on a specific skill or content concept to help build rote memory skills Repetition
Repetition and practice of new skills until the learner performs without cues or prompts Skill Drill
A planned, sequential instructin to show similarities and differences between acquired and new knowledge Strategic instruction
A strategy in which the goals are broken into smaller steps and sequenced while keeping the learner's pace in focus Task analysis
A procedure that improves fluency of new skills through time limits Time trial
Providing the instructional prompts to aid in correct responses Transfer of stimulus control
Any item, piece of equipment or product system whether acquired commercially, modified or customized, to improve the functional capabilities of disabled children Assistive technology
Students in special education are provided behavior management tools according to their ______ and _________ FBA -functional behavior assessment; BIP- Behavior intervention plan
Method of behavior scrutiny to determine how and why a student responds to certain events, situations, or the environment and allows for a training component of rewards and reinforcements to help the student learn the target behavior ABA- Applied behavior analysis
Stimulus used in behavior management and behavior modification that occurs prior to the behavior and establishes the reason for the behavior Antecedent
Strategies or actions used to extinguish or change inappropriate behaviors; 3 types are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and aversive intervention Behavior intervention
An evaluation tool that lists specific observable behaviors to assess the severity, frequency and type of behaviors. Behavior rating scales
Stimulus that follows a behavior action used in behavior management or behavior modification to increase or decrease the behavior Consequences
Written agreement between student and teacher that outlines expected behaviors and consequences Contingency contract
Strategy in which the function or task is broken down into steps that are rewarded immediately on a trial-by-trial basis Discrete trial training
When a behavior continues repeatedly beyond the typical endpoint and the student demonstrates difficulty switching tasks Perseveration
Many students identified with learning disabilities in the area of mathematics experience difficulites with _____ and _____ Calculations and reasoning
The very simple definition of the term "learning disability" is: A neurological disorder of language
The three main concepts of the congitive psychology theory are: Knowing, thinking; learning
________ is a component of the linguistic system. Pragmatics
A disability in the area of mathematics in which the individual has problems solving arithmetic problems, understanding math concepts, or remembering facts. Dyscalculia
A writing disability in which the individual has problems writing. Dysgraphia
Collected samples of student work during a specific period of time, used to assess the student's achievement level and progress Portfolio assessment
Teacher determines a student's ability to learn in a certain situation rather than documenting what the student has actuallly learned. Dynamic assessment
Teacher collects information about a student to use in assessment throughout the period of instruction Diagnostic Teaching assessment
Classroom form of daily assessment of a student's perfomance on the skills that are taught each day and instruction for particular students may be modified as needed. Direct daily measurement
Required as a component of a formal assessment. Information is collected about a student's behaviors, participation in class, taks completed, and social interactions Observation
Intelligence and achievement tests are both what kind of tests? Standardized
CBM or curriculum based measurments Measures a student's performance, checks the learning patterns and progress, and provides feedback to the teacher regarding effective instruction.
May be formal (academic achievement battery) or informal (curriculum-based assessments)... an example of this type of expression is Spelling. Written expression
A severe problem with the acquisition of oral language and may be described either as receptive or expressive language disorders. Developmental aphasia
A specific expressive disorder with problems involving word retrieval, word expression, or memory. Dysnomia
To naturally stimulate language in young children, educators and parents should use the techniques of _____, ______, and ______. expansion, parallel talk, self talk
Reading is divided into two distinct components of ______ and ________. Word recognition; Reading comprehension
The essential elements for learning to read successfully are what 5 skills? Phonemic awareness; phonics; fluency; vocabulary and text comprehension
Present levels of education performance (PLEP) A narrative description of a students current level of functioning in a variety of setting.
Performance (IEP Goal) Part of annual goal that is a specific, observable skill the student is expected to improve of accomplish and must be clearly identified according to curriculum, standards, or teacher made materials
Condition (IEP Goal) Presents specific information about when, where, or how the area of disability or the needed skill will be addressed.
Criteria (IEP Goal) Must identify how well the skill must be completed, or how often to acquire mastery.
Assessment (IEP Goal) Will show how the mastery of the skill is measured and is documented
Standard (IEP Goal) The state coded reference for the academic objective
Basic format of an IEP Goal Given a ______ (Condition, the child will ______ (Performance) according to ______ (Criteria) as measured by ______ (Assessment) . ______ (Standard)
Positive Behavior Support Applying behavior interventions to promote socially appropriate behaviors.
Functional Behavior Assessment Process of identifying the undesired behaviors and the events that are related to them
Behavior Intervention Plan Record that serves as an outline for a proposed positive behavioral support system for a student.
Foley v. Special School District of St. Louis Ruled that public schools are not required to provide Special Education services if parents choose a private school placement
Department of Education v. Katherine D. Ruled that a homebound placement was not the LRE for a student, required public school placement and medical services in the general classroom
___________ extends the lesson plan for those capable of more. Enrichment
___________ uses strategies to teach and reinforce skills to those needing more practice. Remediation
___________ includes hands on, interactive opportunities in vocational and life skills training. Community-based instruction
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) A set of strategies that aid students to meet communication needs through symbols of other transmission devices
Supports students that have oral language problems. Augmentative technology
Supports students that have oral language problems. Augmentative technology
A type of communication in which a person provides assistance to a student by pointing to symbols or letters. Facilitated communication
A type of communication in which a person provides assistance to a student by pointing to symbols or letters. Facilitated communication
Provides drill and practice for students that have problems in basic skill areas or motivation Instructional technology
Provides drill and practice for students that have problems in basic skill areas or motivation Instructional technology
Used for students that have reading problems. Oral reading software
Replaces the keyboard and input devices Voice recognition system
Used for students that have reading problems. Oral reading software
Replaces the keyboard and input devices Voice recognition system
Converts text from a computer into sound Voice synthesizer
When a behavior repeats continually and beyond a typical endpoint; student shows difficulty switching tasks perseveration
Supports students with written text or expression deficits Word processing software
When a behavior repeats continually and beyond a typical endpoint; student shows difficulty switching tasks perseveration
Assessing _____ ______ involves evaluating the efficiency of movements controlled by the body's muscles. motor proficiency
______ is the process of comprehending information received by the senses. Perception
_____-______ _______ is the process of coordinating sensory information with corresponding body movements. Perceptual-motor integration
Tests for motor proficiency and perception are most accurate for what age children? pre-schoolers and elementary
Created by: stephrltr on 2011-10-23



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