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Ling 301 Midterm

Basic Linguistics

Linguistics Linguistics is the study of how language works and how people use language _ All languages are rule based and complex _ Languages can vary across time and space
historical linguistics the study of how languages change through time; the study of how languages are historically related to one another
phonetics the study of minimal units of language
phonology the study of sound systems of a language, how the particular sounds contrast in each language to form a n integrated system for encoding information, and how such systems differ from one language to the next.
morphology the study of how words are constructed out of morphemes and our ability to know new combinations work: *bookly v nicely.
syntax A component of mental grammar that deals with constructing phrasal expressions out of smaller expressions. Also a name for the subfield of linguistics which studies how expressions can combine to form larger expressions
semantics The study of linguistic meaning. Sense 00 the mental representation of a meaning. Reference – the physical item that the word describes.
lexicon A mental repository of linguistic information about words and other lexical expressions, including their form, meaning, morphological, and syntactic properties. As a part of a descriptive, not mental, grammar, the lexicon is the representation of the ment
prescriptive standard the standard by which a society makes hudgements of ‘right’ or ‘wrong.’
descriptivism objective description of a speakers knowledge of a language based on their use of the language.
neogrammarian Die Junggrammatikers auf Deutsch. Coined Regularity Hypothesis – sound change is absolutely regular.
regular sound change vs. a change in sound regular sound change occurs PHONOLOGICALLY and throughout language as a whole any other sound change can be morphological or substitutive as in taboo words.
regularity hypothesis sound change is absolutely regular throughout a language.
conditioned vs. unconditioned sound change Conditioned is a sound change that occurs under the influence of nearby sounds. Undconditioned occurs without the influence of neighboring sounds.
assimilation a process y which sound becomes more like a nearby sound in termso of some features.
types of assimilation contact, distant or umlaut, anticipatory or preservative
palatalization a process in which a sound takes on a palatal place of articulation, usulall in assimilation to hogh or mid front vowels like [i] or [e].
dissimilation Process by which two nearby sounds necome less alike with respect to some feature.
weakening v lenition a process through which sounds are mead weaker according to some criterion.
Fortition a process through which sounds are made stronger according to some criterion.
Metathesis Switching of the order of sounds, each taking the place of the other cavalry -- calvary.
Epenthesis the addition of one or more sounds to a word. Drawing – drawring.
Prosthesis the addition of a sound at the beginning of a word without changing the meaning or structure of the word.
Syncope the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word especially an unstressed vowel.
paradigmatic leveling a type of morophological change in which irregular memberso f a paradigm become regular through analogy (combining vowel change in all forms of conjugation even though it should only apply to 3).
four part analogy A:B as C:D then B and D must act similarly.
backformation Word formation process in which a new stem form is created from an apparently similar derived or inflected form.Ressurection(n) clipped to form resurrect(v).
blends In speech production a production error in which two words ‘fuse’ into a single item. In language change a new word created by combining th parts of two different words, usually the beginning of one word and the end of another. Spoon + fork = spork.
contamination Three Thor Thive or Free Four Five
reanalysis When a group of words is commonly combined grammatical change is often applied as if it were one word. Passer by – passers by or passerbys. “The quilted quicker picker-upper, Bounty.”
mondegreen A mondegreen is the mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase as a result of near homophony, in a way that gives it a new meaning. It most commonly is applied to a line in a poem or a lyric in a song.
metanalysis The breaking down of a word or phrase into segments not original to it. Alone – al-one like although – al-though. an ewte, an ekename, a nuncle, a napperon, and a nadder
folk-popular etymology Reanalysis of a word or phrase (usually an unfamiliar one) into a word or phrase composed of more commonly known words. Asparagus – sparrow grass.
ellipses The omission from a clause of one or more words that should otherwise be included. ‘I went to the zoo and soandso went [to the zoo] too.’
productive vs. non-productive processes Productive is the ability to combine words an affixes to create new words such as megabitch or funish.
isolating or analytic language A type of language in which most words consist of one morpheme and sentences are composed of sequences of these free morphemes. Grammatical relationships are often indicated b word order. Examples are Chinese and Vietnamese.
Agglutinating languages A language in which most words are formed by joining morphemes together to create new meaning in tense, quantitity, gender, etc. Bound morphemes are expressed by affixes not internal change to the word.
inflectional-fusional A type of synthetic language differed from agglutinating languages by its tendency to overlay morphemes in a way that can make it difficult to segment.
incorporating-polysynthetic languages highly synthetic languages in which words are composed of many morphemes.
How language is thought to be synthetic The degree of synthesis refers to the morpheme-to-word ratio. Languages with more than one morpheme per word are synthetic. Polysynthetic languages lie at the extreme end of the synthesis continuum with a very high number of morphemes per word (at the oth
Coinage Process of creating new words without employing any other word or word part already in existence. Words are created ‘out of thin air.’
Neologism a newly coined word or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use but has not yet been accepted into the mainstream language.
Created by: huelsejc