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# PH - Thermdnmcs

### Physics: Thermodynamics - KAPLAN/MCAT in a box

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Calorie | A unit of heat (C) that equals 10^3 calories (c) or 4,184 Joules. |

Conduction | Form of heat transfer where heat energy is directly transferred between molecules through molecular collisions or direct contact. |

Convection | Form of heat transfer applying only to fluids (liquids and gases) where heated material transfers energy by bulk flow and physical motion. |

First Law of Thermodynamics | The change in internal energy of a system (ΔU) is equal to the heat (Q) transferred into the system minus the energy lost by the system when it performs work (W). ΔU = Q - W. |

Heat of Fusion | The heat of transformation corresponding to a phase change from either solid to liquid or liquid to solid. |

Heat of Transformation | The amount of heat required to change the phase of a substance, calculated by the equation q = mL, where q is heat, m is the mass of the substance, and L is the heat of transformation for that substance. |

Heat of Vaporization | The heat of transformation corresponding to a phase change from liquid to gas or from gas to liquid. |

Kelvin | The most commonly used temperature scale (SI units) that ranges up from absolute zero. T[K] = T[C] + 273. |

Pressure | The force per unit area: F/A. |

Radiation | Form of heat transfer accomplished by electromagnetic waves, which can travel through a vacuum. |

Second Law of Thermodynamics | When a thermodynamic process moves a system from one state of equilibrium to another, the entropy (S) of that system combined with that of its surroundings will either increase (irreversible processes) or remain unchanged (reversible processes). |

Temperature | A measure of the heat content that a body possesses, measured on the Kelvin, Celsius, or Fahrenheit scale. |

Thermal Expansion | The expansion of a solid as a result of increasing temperatures, calculated by the equation ΔL = αLΔT, where L is the length, α is the coefficient of linear expansion, and T is the temperature. |

Thermodynamics | The study of heat transfer and its effects. |

Volume Expansion | The expansion in volume of a liquid as a result of increasing temperatures, calculated by the equation ΔV = βVΔT, where V is volume and β is the coefficient of volume expansion. |

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miibo