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MCAT Physical

Physics and General Chemistry

colligative properties Vapor-pressure depression (boiling-point elevation), freezing-point depression, osmotic pressure.
solubility The amount of solute that will saturate a particular solvent.
molality Moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
mole fraction Moles of solute over total moles of solution
Solutes dissolve best in solvents... ... where the intermolecular forces being broken in the solute are being replaced by equal or stronger forces between the solvent and the solute.
Molality is useful because... ... it is independent of temperature and pressure.
strong electrolytes Ionic substances that dissociate completely
weak electrolytes Ionic compounds that do not dissociate completely
Strong electrolytes... ...conduct electricity better than weak electrolytes.
van't Hoff factor ("i") The number of ions a unit of a substance will produce in a given solution. (Ex: For NaCl, i = 2)
ionizability ("i") See van't Hoff factor.
All ionic compounds... ... are strong electrolytes, whether soluble or not.
Solubility of salts in water (1) All Group I (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and ammonium salts are soluble.
Solubility of salts in water (2) All nitrate (NO3-), perclorate (ClO4-), and acetate (C2H3O2-) salts are soluble.
Solubility of salts in water (3) All silver, lead, and mercury salts are insoluble (except for compounds soluble under rule 2).
Phase solubility (1) The solubility of solids in liquids tends to increase with increasing temperature.
Phase solubility (2) The solubility of gases in liquids tends to decrease with increasing temperature.
Phase solubility (3) The solubility of gases in liquids tends to increase with increasing pressure.
Colligative properties... are only dependent on the number of particles in the solution, and are independent of the identity of particle.
vapor pressure The pressure exerted by the gaseous phase of a liquid that evaporated from the exposed surface of the liquid.
volatile Having high vapor pressure.
boiling point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a solution is equal to atmospheric pressure.
Salt water... ... has a lower vapor pressure and boils at a higher temperature than pure water.
Raoult's Law The partial vapor pressure of a particular substituent in a solution is proportional to its mole fraction.
Dalton's Law The total vapor pressure over a solution is the sum of the partial vapor pressures of the substituent liquids.
vapor-pressure depression Change in partial pressure of a solution due to dissolution of nonvolatile solute B into solvent A is equal to the negative product of the mole fraction of B and the partial pressure of pure A.
ideal solution A solution where all intermolecular forces are equal.
Vapor-pressure depression occurs because... ... dissolution of a solute in a solvent closes the entropy gap between the soution and vapor phases. The smaller increase in entropy from evaporation leads to less tendency to evaporate. Occurs only in solid-liquid solutions.
Boiling point elevation occurs because... ... when vapor pressure is depressed, higher temperature is needed to vaporize the solution. Occurs in only solid-liquid solutions.
The behavior of a liquid-liquid solution deviates from Raoult's Law when... ... (1) Intermolecular forces between the liquids are weaker (resulting in higher vapor pressure); (2) Intermolecular forces are stronger (resulting in lower vapor pressure).
boiling-point elevation = (k)(i)(m); k = solvent's boiling point elevation constant, i = solute's van't Hoff factor, m = molality of the solution
Freezing-point depression occurs because... ... soluting a solvent increases the entropic difference between the solution and solid phases (making things easier to melt and harder to freeze). Occurs in both solid-liquid and liquid-liquid solutions.
freezing-point depression = -(k)(i)(m)
osmotic pressure = iMRT
force exerted by a spring F = -kx
elastic potential energy E = (1/2)kx^2
frequency of a block oscillating on a spring f = (1/2pi)sqrt(k/m)
period of a block oscillating on a spring T = 1/f
A pendulum undergoes... ... not simple harmonic motion. When the angle is small, though, it acts like a simple harmonic.
frequency of an oscillating pendulum f = (1/2pi)sqrt(g/L). (Note: only applies to small angles.)
wave speed = (wavelength)(frequency)
wave speed on a rope = sqrt(T/D); T = tension, D = linear density
Wave speed depends on... ... the type of wave and the characteristics of the medium, and not the frequency. Light through a material medium is the only exception.
When a wave passes into a different medium... ... speed changes, but not frequency.
The amplitude of a wave depends on... ... energy, not frequency, wavelength, or wave speed.
fundamental The first harmonic, whose wavelength is double the length of the rope
Created by: goosebot