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MCAT Anatomy CH 2

Anatomy and Physiology

Chemical bonds sharing of electrons between atoms
Molecule two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds (sharing of electrons)
Chemical Reaction chemical bonds are formed or broken apart
Chemical bonds contain what? Potential Energy
Single Covalent Bond Sharing one pair of electrons
Double Covalent Bond Sharing two pairs of electrons
Rank Hydrogen, Covalent and Ionic by strength (strong, weak, very weak) Covalent - Strong. Ionic - Weak. Hydrogen - Very Weak.
Two types of Covalent Bonds & properties polar - unequal sharing of electrons & different types of atoms bonding (h20) & non polar - very equal sharing of electrons & atoms of the same type bonding (h2,02)
Covalent Bond Atoms share electrons
Ionic Bonds electrical attraction between ions. One atom, the electron donor looses one or more electrons and becomes a cation w + charge, while another atom, the electron acceptor gains those same electrons and becomes the electron acceptor, anion, - charge
Cations positively charged ions
Anions negatively charged ions
Hydrogen Bonds Weak electrical attractions. Takes place between the ends of molecules and H. (ex. holds water molec. together in solution).
Name 3 main Properties of Water 1. High heat capacity. 2. "Universal Solvent" 3. Molecules are defined by their ability to interact with h20 (hydrophobic & hydrophilic)
Hydrophobic molecules with non-polar bonds (afraid of h20)
Hydrophylic molecules with polar bonds, ions (love of h20)
Electrolytes Soluble inorganic olecules whose ions can conduct electrical current in solution. (anything ionic that can dissasociate in h20 (i.e. NACL -> CL-, NA+). Molecules that are electrolytes have ionic bonds that ionize (dissasociate) in h20
Salt an electrolyte whose cation is not hydrogen and whose anion is not hydroxide (isn't acid or base)
Acids Release hydrogen ions into solution (contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions)
Bases Remove hydrogen ions from solution (has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions)
PH a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution
Log Exponent
Normal PH range of Blood 7.35-7.45
Acidosis Abnormally low blood P,H ( less than 7.35), more common than alkalosis
Alkalosis Abnormally High blood PH (greate than 7.45)
Atkins diet causes cidosis (ketoacidosis)
Inorganic Compound Generally do not include both C &H. Examples include H20, Co2, 02, salts, inorganic acids and bases
The human body is composed mostly of what kind of compound? (org or inorg?) Inorganic, mostly due to h20 making up the most of the body weight
Organic Compounds always have H& C (generally include C,H, sometimes O). may have N,P,S,Fe and other trace elements
What is the most simple organic compound? CH4, methane (Carbon always wants to form 4 bonds)
Four major classes of Organic Compounds Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins & amino acids, nucleic acids &nucleotides
Polymer A large molecule consisting of a long chain of subunits (
Which organic compound is not a polymer? Lipids (why?)
What is the molecular composition of the human body? (h20,proteins,lipids,carbs) h20- 66%, protein-20%, lipids- 10%, carbohydrates-3%
Carbohydrates Prefix glyco, C,H,O in ratio of approximately 1:2:1 (ex. C6 H12 O6)
Three classes of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides Type of Carbohydrate, simple sugars. ex. glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides Tyep of Carb, 2 monosaccharides combined. i.e. sucrose(fromed from glucose & fructose), lactose (formed from glucose & galactose)
Poysaccharides type of Carb, chains of simple sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose
Lipids C,H,O present, but much less O than either, C to H ratio 1:2. example is lauric acid (C12, H24, O2), fats, oils, waxes.
types of Lipids Fatty Acids, Triglicerides
Fatty Acid Type of Lipid, has carboxyl group, long chain of carbon & hydrogen atoms attached. i.e. saturated, unsaturated, omega-3
Triglycerides Lipid -> Glycerides -> Triglicerides. AKA Neutral fats, formed by attachment of 3 fatty acids and glyerol molecule (via dehydration synthesis) i.e. fats, oils
Five types of Lipids Fatty Acids, Glycerides, Eicosanoids, Steroids, Phospholipids & Glycolipids
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes (type of Eicosanoid), short chain fatty acid in which five of the carbon atoms are joined in a ring, direct local cellular activities
Steroids (3ex) Type of Lipid, ex. cholesterol, estrogen, corticosteroids(derivative of cholesterol), all have complex four ring structure, steroids differ in the side chains attached to the carbon rings
Phospholipids & Glycolipids types of Lipids, help form clel membrane structure, see p 47
proteins = polypeptide, linear sequences of amino acids held together by peptide bonds (most abundant organic components of the human body, all contain C,H,O,N and smaller quantities of Sulfer may also be present
Protein functions (7) (p49)
Amino Acids (consist of 5 components) proteins consist of long chains of organic molecules called amino acids. Components: 1. central carbon atom. 2. Hydrogen atom. 3. Amino group (-NH2) 4. Carboxylic Acid group (-COOH). 5. a variable R (radical) group or side chain
Buffer Removes or replaces hydrogen ions in solution. Buffers maintain the PH within normal limits.
Glycoprotein glyco = carb, large protein molecules with carbs attached. Ex. Antibodies, Hormones and Mucus
Proteoglycans (carb-protein combination) large polysaccharides linked by peptide chains. Important thickening agent for tissue fluids.
Types of Protein Structure primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
Primary structure Type of protein structure, an amino acid sequence
Secondary, tertiary & quaternary protein bonds are primarily held together by? hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are weak and can be denatured by disrupting H bonds with heat or PH changes
What will happen to proteins pushed outside of their normal PH and temp ranges? They will change shape and cease to function
metabolism the sum of all chemical reactions in the body
catabolism Under Metabolism, breaks down complex molecules and releases energy (ex. cellular respiration which breaks down carbs)
anabolism (Under metabolism) - synthesis of new molecules using energy (ex. to help remember - anabolic steroids)
metabolic turnover continuous removal and replacement of all organic molecules except DNA
Enzymes - Proteins<br /> - Catalysts <br /> - Reduce the energy of activation without being permanently changed or used up. - Promote chemical reactions at temperatures and PH levels compatible with life
T or F. Enzymes are needed to catalyze all chemical reactions that occur in living cells T
Created by: analeah

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