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Biochem Lecture Self

WVSOM biocehm lecture 2

lactose is made of glucose/galactose
sucrose is made of glucose/fructose
maltose is made of glucose/glucose
Epimers only differ at One Stereocenter, such as d-glucose and d-galactose
Only monosaccarides are absorbed in digestion true
maltose is found in the digestion of complex carbs and grains
sucrose is found in fruits, table sugar,honey, processed foods
lactose milk, dairy products
unsaturated fatty acids have lower melting points in the saturated fatty acids due to . kinks that are formed by the double bonds resulting in less stacking .
longer the fatty acid chain,________ the melting point. higher .
Most Common Saturated Fatty Acids long chain 12-20 carbons, even carbon #, saturated such as Palmitate (C16) and Stearate (C18) (mainly found in animal fat)
Most common unsaturated fatty acids oleate(C18:1 at 19) linoleate(C18:2 at 9/12) linolenate (C18:3 9/12/15).
arachidonate, C20:4 5,8,11,14,
Essential Fatty Acids Linoleate and Linolenate, must be obtained from diet
Arachidonate is not an essential fatty acid, C20:4 5,8,11,14
Major acids produced by the body phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, lactic acid, hydrochloric acid, ketone bodies acetoacetic acid and B-hydroxybutyric acid, C02 is also produced which combines with H20 to form carbonic acid catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase
C02 + H20 -->H2C03 ---> H+ + HC03- catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase
Acetazolamide blocks carbonic anhydrase and is usedd to treat glaucoma and altitude sickness
The oxidation of glucose results in _________ and is done by ___________ gluconic acid, glucose oxidase, which is what labs use on dipsticks to test for glucose in urine
Grey baby Syndrome infants are unable to utilize oxidized glucose (glucoronic acid) to conjugate the drug chloramphenicol(antibiotic) results in high levels and toxicity
glucose is reduced to sorbitol and galactitol, sorbitol does not readily diffuse out of cells, it accumulates and can result in osmotic damage, cataracts and neuropathy
Doctors can detect glucose in the urine using glucose oxidase dipstick tests, but what can they use to detect other sugars REDUCING SUGAR TESTs
Reducing sugar tests pick up what sugars Sucrose, galactose and fructose
Glycine amino acid with no side chain, functions as inhibitory neurotransmitter and inhibited by strychnine
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