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AP European History

Chapter 17 - State Building

TermDefinition
Louis XIV Convinced his people he ruled by divine right. Often called the "Sun King" Longest reigning French king. Built a lavish palace at Versailles that drained the French economy. The best example of Absolutism.
Absolutism One model of state building where one ruler claimed sole and uncontestable control.
Constitutionalism A system in which the ruler has to share power the parliaments made up of elected representatives.
The Fronde 1648-1653 A series of revolts against Louis XIV which posed an unprecedented threat to the French crown.
Cardinal Mazarin He was the regent of Louis XIV when he was young and took constitutional power away from the parlements and caused a number of revolts to take place.
The Sun King A title Louis XIV called himself after the Greek God Apollo, to increase his prestige.
Jansenists Although Catholic, they resembled the Protestants in their emphasis on God's grace, original sin, and in their austere religious practices that were similar to the English Puritans.
Revoking of the Edict of Nantes Louis XIV eliminated all the Huguenot’s rights. Making France's official religion Catholic.
Mercantilism Governments must intervene to increase national wealth by whatever means possible. This is the theory upon which colonization is based.
Jean Baptiste-Colbert A minister in Louis’s bureaucracy, he began the new economic doctrine of mercantilism.
Frederick I The leader of Bradenburg-Prussia, he succeeded in bringing all of the German states into one absolutist state and convinced the Emperor to grant him the title “King in Prussia.”
Jan Sobieski King of Poland-Lithuania, he tried to bring the country together by fighting the Turks, but could not stop the countries descent to powerlessness.
Charles I King of England, he tried to exert his power over parliament and sent the country into a civil war. It pitted Puritans against Catholics and gave birth to democratic political and religious movements. Was excecuted.
Petition of Right The English Parliament forced Charles I to agree to not levy taxes without its consent.
Oliver Cromwell The Puritans united under him to create the New Model Army and defeated the Cavaliers at Naseby in 1645.
Levellers Made up of disgruntled soldiers, they wanted to level social distinctions by allowing common people to participate in Parliament. Charles rejected the their demands.
Restoration Restored the king of England and brought back fear of French absolutism that was not unfounded, as Charles II was negotiating to work with Louis XIV. He also removed laws against Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his “Declaration of Indulgences.”
James II Came into power after Charles II and was pro-Catholic and absolutist.
William and Mary The Dutch rulers who gained the throne through the "Glorius Revoluiton"
Bill of Rights Passed by Parliament in which William and Mary agreed not to raise a standing army or raise taxes without Parliament’s consent.
Glorious Revolution It was the victory of constitutionalism in England over absolutism in the rest of Europe with the agreement for Parliament to share power with the Monarchs.
Thomas Hobbes An English philosopher whose famous 1648 book Leviathan set the agenda for nearly all subsequent Western political philosophy. He was a supporter of Absolutism.
Leviathan Thomas Hobbes famous book that argued for a social contract and rule by a sovereign. Chaos or war could only be avoided by a strong central government. This is one of the first books on the Social Contract Theory.
John Locke An English Philosopher who argued a government could only be legitimate if it received the consent of the governed through a social contract and protected the natural rights of life, liberty, and estate. A supporter of Constitutionalism.
Tabula Rasa A theory that individual human beings are born with no innate or built-in mental content, in a word, "blank", and that their entire resource of knowledge is built up gradually from their experiences and sensory perceptions of the outside world.
Sir Isaac Newton Responsible for modern day calculus and improved upon heliocentrism.
Principia Mathematica The book Newton wrote describing the three laws of motion by which everything in the universe is governed.
John Milton English Puritan poet who published Areopagitica, describing the freedoms of the press. He also published Paradise Lost.
Classicism Reflected the ideals of the art of antiquity and did not reflect the emotion of Baroque. It was the style of French painters, and focused paintings on the individual by putting them at the intersection of converging, symmetrical, and straight lines.
Rembrandt A Dutch artist who painted ordinary people and made regular activities seem precious and beautiful.
Moliere Wrote comedies of manners that revealed much about new aristocratic behaviour and manners.
Tartuffe One of the most famous French playwrights of all time, he criticized religious hypocrites and had to be banned.
Junkers Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, rich Prussians associated with political conservatism and militarism.
New Model Army The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
Rump Parliament The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy.
Lord Protector Cromwell disbanded parliament and took this title when parliament moved to quit funding the New Model Army
Charles II King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
baroque Was favored by the Catholic church and patronized by Habsburg rulers because the emotional response it evoked proved to be especially suitable for inspiring awe in public displays of faith and of the power of the monarch and the Catholic church.
Aphra Behn One of the first professional women writers, was a novelist and wrote the best-seller Oroonoko.
Created by: alfromcanada on 2007-01-18



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