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RT 140 Midterm

Radiation Protection

QuestionAnswer
• Diagnostic efficacy the degree to which the diagnostic study accurately reviles the presence or absence of disease
• Refers to the background equivalent radiation time BERT
• ____Does not imply radiation risk, it is simply a means for comparison BERT
• ___Emphasizes that radiation is an innate part of our environment BERT
• The answer given in terms of ___is easy for the patient to comprehend BERT
• _____is not EM radiation Ultrasound
• In order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength the EM radiations go as follow radio waves, microwave, infrared, visible light, UV, x-ray, gamma, cosmic
• UV, visible light, radio waves, microwaves, and infrared are ALL NONIONIZING
• Rad to SI units Gray
• Rem to SI units Sieverts
• Roentgen to SI units C/kg
• What was the main effect from the disaster at Chernobyl thyroid cancer
• Natural sources become increased because of the accidental or deliberate human action ENHANCED NATURAL SOURCES
• A quantity that attempts to take into account the variation in biological harm that is produced by different types of radiation Equivalent dose
• What does atom mean in Greek indivisible
• Z in the atomic formula atomic number aka the proton number
• what is X in the atomic formula element
• What is A in the atomic formula atomic mass
• If he asks what the difference between two of the same elements, no change occurs (none of the above)
• Isotopes have the same proton number
• Isobars have the same atomic mass
• Isotones have the same neutron number
• Isomers have the same everything but one is in a metastable state
• Avogadro's number is 6.023 x 10^23
• AMU for protons 1.007amu
• AMU for electrons .0005 amu
• AMU for neutron 1.008 amu
• Charge of protons is 1.67 x 10^-19 coulombs
• Charge of electrons -1.67 x 10^-19
• Nuclear medicine deals with gamma particles
• The mass of an atom is not exactly equal to the sum of the parts Mass defect
• 1 mole 6.023 x 10^23 (Avogadro's number)
• The spontaneous release of energy from the nucleus of an atom in the form of EM or particulate radiation Radioactivity
• Energy propagated in space by travelling corpuscles having a definite rest mass, charge, and position particulate radiation
• Energy propagated in space as oscillating electric and magnetic fields at 90 degrees to each other at the speed of light EM radiation
• speed of light is 3 x 10^8m/s and 3x10^10cm/s
• Which of the following benefits, deals with keeping exposure to a minimum ALARA (only alara)
• Instability increases as proton number increases
• planks constant 12.4/ E(keV)
• What makes an particle directly ionizing if it has a charge
• What is the dose response model for diagnostic x-ray linear model
• Roentgen is only good for air, up to 3 meV, and for x/gamma rays
• QF  RBE  Wr
• SI unit for Roentgen is C/Kg
• Lambert Beer formula If = Ii e^-(LAC)(thickness)
• HVL = ln2/LAC
• LAC = ln2/HVL
• 1rem = 1rad = 1R
• depressed WBC, RBC, platelet Pancytopnea
• increase in white blood cells leukemia
• scatter and absorption Attenuation
• What is an alternative to characteristic radiation, auger
• Coherent is aka classical, elastic, and unmodified
• Compton is aka incoherent, inelastic, and modified
• Which interaction involves a free or loosely bound electron compton
• absorption edges involves Photoelectric
• Which interaction produces a less energy photon compton
• Z^2 is to pair production
• Z^3/E^3 is to PE
• What occurs between 100keV and 2 meV compton
• What is the master target DNA
• What is most dominant at low energy coherent
• HVL Ln2/u
• Which interaction increases with energy and Z# photodisintegration
• Alternative to characteristic radiation is auger
• Max amount of electrons in the orbital shells is 2n^2
• What is the number of electrons in the valence shell 8
• Wave model C= wavelength x frequency
• quantum model E=hv
• T/F The probability of an 80Kev photon being scattered is greater for tin z=50 than for aluminum z=13 FALSE
• T/F In compton interaction the electron acquires any energy from 0 up to the energy of an incident photon FALSE
• T/F Wavelength of a scatter photon may be shorter than wavelength of an incident photon FALSE
• The probability of a ____interaction increases with Z number and decreases with increasing energy PE
• A photon may scatter from an atom without losing energy FALSE
• A photon may be emitted from an atom without ionizing it true
• When an electron is removed from an atom the atom is said to be ionized
• The major controlling factor for beam quality that is under the direct control of the tech is kVp
• The major control factor beam quantity under control of the tech mAs
• Which equation would be used for the wavelength of a photon lambda=12.4/E
• What interaction ionizes water causing free radicals indirect
• A photon of frequency 100mHz has a wavelength of 3m/s
• Which interaction causes the most absorbed dose to the patient PE
• In order of increasing magnitude characteristic, Brems, heat
• occupational dose is 5rem
• extremity MPD 50rem
• MPD for lens of the eye 15rem
• MPD for the skin 50rem
• MPD for fetus per month .05rem
• MPD for the pregnant worker 5rem
• The HVL of the beam beam penetrating, and beam quality
• Z number for bone 13.8
• Z number for air 7.4
• Z number for soft tissue 7.6
• What affects the attenuation energy of beam/ the density of absorbing tissue/ the Z# and e/gm of tissue
• The rate of energy transfer by an electron through matter is linear energy transfer
• Increases with increasing energy compton
• Which interaction involves a free electron compton
• When electron is removed from an atom, the atom is ionized
• The maximum number of electrons in the orbital shells of an atom is 2n ^2
• X-rays, gamma rays, electrons(Beta) have weighting factors of 1
• Wr for proton 5
• Alpha has a weighting factor of 20
• Increasing magnitude order is as follows Characteristic, Brems, heat
• The major controlling factor quantity is mAs
• Filtrating of x-ray beam will result in hardening, more penetrating, decrease in quantity, increase in quality
• What type of interaction forms free radicals indirect
• Most dominant at low photon energies PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT (I have confirmed it is PE, not coherent)
• Which interaction occurs with free or outer shell electrons compton
• A photon CAN NOT undergo 2 consecutive PE interactions
• What interaction occurs between 100kev and 2 mev compton
• Only important at energy above 2 mev pair production
• No energy is transferred or locally absorbed coherent
• Is affected by absorption edges PE
• A lower energy photon is produced compton
• The building block of all organic materials is DNA
• Does not depend on Z compton
• Occurs with an outer shell or free electron compton
• Increasing with increasing photon energy compton
• Increases as energy and Z number increase photodisintegration
• T/F the probability of an 80 kev photon being scattered is greater for tin (z=50) than for aluminum (z=13) FALSE
• In compton interaction, the electron may acquire energy from zero up to the energy of the incident photon FALSE
• Wavelength of a scattered photon may be shorter than the wavelength of an incident photon wavelength
• A photon can undergo 2 consecutive PE interactions FALSE
• Threshold energy for Pair production is 1.02 MeV
• The probability of ___decreases with increasing energy is PE
• A photon may scatter from an atom without losing energy FALSE
• A photon can be emitted from an atom without ionizing the atom TRUE
• The major control factor for beam quality is kVp
• The major controlling factor for beam quantity is mAs
• What equation is used to find wavelength lambda = 12.4/E
• The property that determines whether a type of radiation is directly or indirectly ionizing is the charge
• Alternative to characteristic is auger
• The HVL of the radiation beam expresses the beam quality and penetrating ability
• What affects attenuation energy of beam/the density of the tissue/the Z#/ the e/gm of tissue
• The rate of energy transferred by an electron as it moves through matter is referred to as LET
• A function of Z^3E^-3 is PE
• In order of increasing magnitude characteristic, bremstrahlung, heat
• radiobiology is the study of radiation effects on living tissue
• exposure is energy absorbed in a given mass in air
• EfD is used for cancer
• Natural background radiation is cosmic, terrestrial and internal
• What dose is considered safe 0 Gy
• radon is more harmful in basements
• Most dominant at energies below 30 kvp PE
• A function of Z^2 Pair production
• What are cells made of protoplasm
• How many amino acids are involved in protein synthesis 22
• What produces antibodies B lymphocytes
• What are the most important polysaccharides starches and animal glycogen
• How many types of tRNA exist 22
• How many base pairs in the human genome 2.9 billion or 2.9 x 10^9
• What enables the cell to communicate with the extracellular environment ER
• What makes glycoproteins Golgi apparatus
• Where are proteins synthesized ribosomes
• What are the garbage disposals of the cell lysosomes
• What compose interphase G1, S, G2
• What process do somatic cells divide in mitosis
• Is water the master target NO, dna is
• What is the master target DNA
• What determines the characteristics of living things order of nitrogenous bases
• How much of a cell is composed of water 80-85%
• DNA backbone is sugar phosphate, and the phosphate group controls the function of the cell FALSE
• Bond that connects amino acids peptide bond
• Lipids are not responsible for the structure of acellular organs
• Lipid functions include aiding in digestion, support/protect/growth and development, protect and guard, support, lubricate joints, insulate
• Oncogenes can be activated by radiation to (ALL THE ABOVE) anything that causes mutation can cause cancer which is a predeterminant of cancer.
• The normal white blood cell count is 5000-10000
• As LET ____ RBE ______ Increases, Increase
• D1 The initial dose
• Dq sub lethal dose (aka quasi threshold)
• D0 radiosensitivity
• X axis of the CSC is DOSE
• Y axis of the CSC is the survival fraction
• If bone marrow is exposed to a low enough dose, the cells are able to repopulate
• T/F neutrons are categorized as indirectly ionization TRUE, because they have NO charge
• T/F neutrons give rise to alpha particles, protons, and other heavy particles TRUE
• Cataracts are non stochastic Threshold
• The f-factor increases with increasing Z # and decreasing energy is the roentgen to rad conversion factor, and is .876 rads/R in AIR
• 250 keV x-rays is the standard for calculating RBE
• X-rays are indirectly ionizing and produce fast recoil electrons
• In regards to the beam, HVL relates to penetrating ability and quality
• For non-stochastic, the only answer is after a certain threshold dose, an effect can be seen
• Cell survival fraction is a function of DOSE
• Radosensitivity of ova ________throughout the lifetime of the cell varies considerably
• X axis of the CSC is DOSE
• Y axis of the CSC is the survival fraction
• If bone marrow is exposed to a low enough dose, the cells are able to repopulate
• T/F neutrons are categorized as indirectly ionization TRUE, because they have NO charge
• T/F neutrons give rise to alpha particles, protons, and other heavy particles TRUE
• How to calculate roentgens to C/Kg 1R/2.58 x 10^-4
• Epithelial cells divide, through mitosis TRUE
• How often do Muscle and nerve cells divide DO NOT
• As LET increases RBE will increase up to a max value (100 keV)
• Permanent sterility for Ova/sperm a single dose of 5 Gy
• OER Cell wO2/Cell wo O2
• LET is measured in Kev per micron (um)
• ___is electromagnetic radiation such as xrays and gamma rays Low LET radiation
• ___includes particles that posses substantial mass and charge High LET radiation
• Approximately ___ of all radiation induced damage is caused by___ Two thirds, Hydroxyl OH*
• What is the window of maximum sensitiviy is 8 to 15 weeks
• Organogenesis is 8 to 15 weeks 10 days to 6 weeks
• Which action of ionizing radiation is most harmful to the human body? Indirect Action
• OH*+OH*= H2O2
Created by: danniegiirl on 2011-05-28



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