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AP European History

Chapter 19 - The Enlightenment - Julie

Glossary TermsDefinitions
The Enlightenment The eighteenth century, historical intellectual movement, advocated Reason
Philosophes Proponents of the enlightenment, one who saw through popular errors, believed that the spread of knowledge would encourage reform in every aspect of life, desired intellectual freedom
Republic of Letters A phrase describing the phenomenon of increased correspondence in the form of letters exchanged between the influential philosophers and other thinkers during the Age of Enlightenment
“natural rights” Universal _______ that are seen as inherent in the nature of people, and not contingent on human actions or beliefs.
“natural law” How a rational human being, seeking to survive and prosper, would act.
salons A gathering of stimulating people of quality under the roof of an inspiring host to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings. Brought together Parisian society and the progressive philosophes.
Deism Hold that correct religious beliefs must be founded on human reason and observed features of the natural world, and that these sources reveal the existence of one God or supreme being.
Atheism Absence of belief in deities
Voltaire French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher. defended civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. Wrote the Candide
Call for the abolition of slavery In England it was started by William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson
Adam Smith Wrote Wealth of Nations, helped to create the modern academic discipline of economics, provided the best-known rationales for free trade, capitalism, and libertarianism.
“laissez-faire economics” Used as a synonym for strict free market economics namely that a state should not use protectionist measures. a doctrine that says that private initiative and production is best free, opposes economic interventionism and taxation
Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment. Influence the French revolution, socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. Wrote The Social Contract
Emile Written in 1827 autobiographical novel by Émile de Girardin, based on Girardin's early life
The Social Contract Written in 1762 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Gotthold Lessing A German writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic. influenced the development of German literature.
Moses Mendelssohn German Jewish philosopher. attributable to him is the renaissance of European Jews, Haskalah, the Jewish enlightenment.
Immanuel Kant A German philosopher. The last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. The philosophical movement known as German Idealism developed from Kant's theoretical and practical writings.
Franz Mesmer discovered what he called magnétisme animal (animal magnetism) and others often called mesmerism. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led James Braid (physician) (1795-1860) to develop hypnosis in 1842.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe A German polymath: he was a poet, novelist, dramatist, humanist, scientist, theorist, painter, and for ten years chief minister of state for the duchy of Weimar. A key figure of German literature and the movement of Weimar Classicism. The author of Faust
“Great Awakening” a religious movement among American colonial Protestants in the 1730s to 1740s. A pulling away from ritual and ceremony, it made religion intensely personal to the average person by creating a deep sense of spiritual guilt and redemption.
Israel ben Eliezer the founder of Hasidic Judaism (Hasidim) he was also known as the Ba'al Shem Tov.
Hyasidim originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people. they turned to Talmud study; felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too academic, that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy. The Ba'al Shem Tov set out to improve it
John Wesley Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. Methodists, under Wesley's direction, became leaders in many social justice issues of the day including prison reform and abolitionism movements.
Methodism originated in 18th century Britain. Originally it appealed especially to workers, agricultural workers, and slaves. Theologically most Methodists are Arminian, emphasizing that all people can be saved.
Bourgeoisie refers to a group of people whose social and political opinions are determined primarily by concern for property values and personal appearance of wealth. ranked below the nobility, their status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth
Masonic lodges often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Constitutions, is the basic organization of Freemasonry.
Neoclassical art a severe and unemotional form of art harkening back to the grandeur of ancient Greece and Rome. Its rigidity was a reaction to the overbred Rococo style and the emotional charged Baroque style. Pert of a general revival of interest in classical thought
Workhouses was a place where people who were unable to support themselves could go to live and work.
John Kay the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution
The Spinning Jenny a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves
The Water Frame an extension of the spinning frame, both of which are credited to Richard Arkwrightbut were actually invented by Thomas Highs and John Kay.
“the putting out system” a means of subcontracting work. It was also known as the workshop system. In putting out, work was contracted by a central agent to subcontractors who completed the work in their own facility, usually their own home.
“enlightened despots” a form of despotism where rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment
The War of Austrian Succession, 1740-1748 became inevitable after Maria Theresa of Austria had succeeded her father Charles VI in his Habsburg dominions in 1740, namely becoming Archduchess of Austria. ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.
Maria Theresa The eldest daughter of Emperor Charles VI, who promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction to allow her to succeed to the Habsburg monarchy, and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel .
The Seven Years War, 1756-1763 the first conflict in human history to be fought around the globe. involved all major powers of the world: Prussia, Great Britain and colonies, and Hanover were pitted against Austria, France and colonies, the Russian Empire, Sweden, and Saxony.
“canton system” served as a means for China to control trade within its own country. The Canton System limited the ports to which the British traders could bring in goods to China.
Frederick II or Frederick the Great of the Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. He was the third and last King in Prussia; beginning in 1772 he used the title King of Prussia.
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ______ was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs"
Catherine II or Caterine the Great sometimes referred to as an epitome of the "enlightened despot" — reigned as Empress of Russia for some 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death
Pope Clement XIV born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, was _____ from 1769 to 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals.
Louis XVI was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. National Convention found him guilty of treason, and executed him on 21 January 1793.
Serfdom the economic status of peasants under feudalism, specifically in the manorial economic system (also known as seigneurialism) and is a condition of bondage or modified slavery.
Leopold II was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was a son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I. _______ was one of the "enlightened monarchs".
The physiocrats a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. Their theories originated in France and were most popular during the second half of the 18th century.
Jacques Turgot a French economist and statesman. best known work, Réflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses (Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth)
1775 Flour War in France In the spring of ____, a series of food riots that shook the villages and countryside around Paris.
Emelian Pugachev born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II.
John Wilkes an English radical, journalist and politician. Opponent of the harsh criminal code.
1780 Gordon Riots a term used to refer to a number of events in a predominantly Protestant religious uprising in London, England, in 1780, aimed against the Roman Catholic Relief Act, 1778
Boston Tea Party a protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on ships in Boston Harbor. The incident has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution.
The American Revolution a political movement during the last half of the 18th century that resulted in the creation of a new nation in 1776, and ended British control of the Thirteen Colonies.
Declaration of Independence an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the "Thirteen United Colonies" were now independent states and formed a new nation
Denis Diderot a French philosopher and writer. He was a prominent figure in the Enlightenment, and was the editor-in-chief of the famous Encyclopédie.
“Diplomatic Revolution” a term applied to the reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances which were upheld until the War of Austrian Succession and then reversed in the Seven Years' War.
1772 Partition of Poland ended the existence of the sovereign ________ Commonwealth. They involved Prussia, Russia and Habsburg Austria dividing up the Commonwealth lands among themselves. Three partitions took place: August 5, 1772. January 23, 1793. October 24, 1795.
James Watt a Scottish inventor and engineer whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution.
Abolitionists a political movement that sought to abolish the practice of slavery and the worldwide slave trade. It began during the period of the Enlightenment and grew to large proportions in several nations during the nineteenth century, largely succeeded
Romanticism an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. In part a revolt against aristocratic, social, and political norms of the Enlightenment period and a reaction against the rationalization of nature
Madame Marie Therese Geoffrin a French hostess who played an interesting part in French literary and artistic life.
Emilie du Chatelet a French mathematician, physicist, and author. In 1737 ______ published a paper Dissertation sur la nature et la propagation du feu, based on research into the science of fire that foresaw what is today known as infra-red radiation and the nature of light
David Hume a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. He is one of the most important figures of the history of Western philosophy and of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Josiah Wedgwood an English potter, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. He was a member of the Darwin — Wedgwood family, most famously including his grandson, Charles Darwin.
Ludwig van Beethoven German composer. He is regarded as one of the great composers in the history of music, and was the predominant figure in the period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. was also a celebrated pianist, conductor, and violinist
Peter III Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. According to most historians, he was mentally immature and very pro-Prussian, which made him an unpopular leader. He was supposedly assassinated as a result of a conspiracy led by his wife, who succeeded him
Treaty of Paris, 1763 often called the Peace of Paris and was signed on February 10, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement.
Gustavus III of Sweden King of ______ from 1771 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great.
Pierre de Beaumarchais a watch-maker, inventor, musician, politician, invalid, fugitive, spy, publisher, arms-dealer, and revolutionary (both French and American). He was best known, however, for his theatrical works, especially the three Figaro plays.
Tea Act passed in May, 1773, which allowed the British East India Company to sell tea to the British colonies in North America without the usual colonial tax, thereby allowing them to undercut the prices of the colonial merchants and smugglers.
Created by: alfromcanada on 2007-01-15



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