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AP European History

Chapter 22 Industrial Revolution

Glossary TermDefinition
Industrialism the major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions in the late 18th and early 19th century that began in Britain and spread throughout the world.
Urbanization the increase over time in the population of cities in relation to the region's rural population. It has intense effects on the ecology of a region and on its economy.
“putting-out system” a popular system of cloth production. Workers would work from home, manufacturing individual articles from raw materials, then bring them to a central place of business, such as a marketplace or a larger town, to be assembled and sold.
Piecework types of employment in which a worker is paid a fixed "piece rate" for each unit produced or action performed.
Factory Act of 1833 a series of Acts passed to limit the number of hours worked by women and children first in the textile industry, then later in all industries.
Mines Act 1842 This act declared that no female was to be employed underground and that no boy under 10 years old was to be employed underground.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning This woman generally considered the greatest of English poetesses. Her works are full of tender and delicate, but also of strong and deep, thought.
Charles Dickens Considered one of the English language's greatest writers, he was the foremost novelist of the Victorian era as well as a vigorous social campaigner.
Charlotte Bronte an English novelist, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. Wrote Jane Eyre, published 1847
George Sand the pseudonym of the French novelist and feminist Amandine-Lucile-Aurore Dupin.
Temperance Society attempts to greatly reduce the amount of alcohol consumed or even prohibit its production and consumption entirely. Was a reaction to industrialization and urbanization.
Colonialism the extension of a nation's sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by the establishment of either settler colonies or administrative dependencies in which indigenous populations are directly ruled or displaced.
Imperialism a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires.
1833 Abolition of Slavery Prohibited the ownership of human beings. This act was passed first in Britain; later in other countries.
The East India Company A major company that became involved with the opium trade.
Nationalism an ideology that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles.
Giuseppe Mazzini an Italian patriot, philosopher and politician. Mazzini's efforts helped bring about the modern Italian state in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the nineteenth century.
Young Italy a political movement founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini. The goal of this movement was to create a united Italian republic.
Zollverein German Customs Union was formed between the 39 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal customs barriers.
Lajos Kossuth a Hungarian lawyer, politician and Regent-President of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1849. He was widely honoured during his lifetime, including in the United Kingdom and the United States, as a freedom fighter.
Louis Blanc Proposed social workshops/state supported manufacturing centers as a way to deal with the problems of industrialization(recognized the developing hostility toward the owning class/bourgeoisie).
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a French mutualist political philosopher who was the first individual to call himself an "anarchist" and is considered among the first anarchist thinkers.
Karl Marx a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. He addressed a wide range of issues; he is most famous "The Communist Manifesto."
“Scientific Socialism” the term used by Friedrich Engels to describe the socio-political-economic theory pioneered by Karl Marx.
Alexandre Dumas a French writer, best known for his numerous historical novels of high adventure which have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world. Wrote Count of Monte Cristo.
David Friedrich Strauss a German theologian and writer. He scandalized Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus," whose divine nature he denied. Despite the flaws that are now apparent in his work, he was a pioneer in the historical investigation of Jesus.
Charles Darwin English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.
Honore de Balzac Along with Gustave Flaubert (whose work he influenced), This authour is generally regarded as a founding father of realism in European literature.
Revolutions of 1848 known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe.
Irish Potato Blight is the name given to the famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. The Famine was due to the appearance of "the Blight" – a potato fungus.
Alphonse de Lamartine a French writer, poet and politician, born in Mâcon into French provincial nobility.
The Communist Manifesto was first published on February 21, 1848, and is one of the world's most influential political tracts. Commissioned by the Communist League and written by communist theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Friedrich Engels a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). He also edited the second and third volumes of Das Kapital after Marx's death.
Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte Emperor of the French and was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 ruler of Dictatorial Government.
Pope Pius IX reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878, making him the longest-reigning Pope since the Apostle St. Peter.
Garibaldi an Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento. He personally led many of the military campaigns that brought about the formation of a unified Italy.
Frankfurt Parliament the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. Meeting in the city of Frankfurt am Main, the assembly was attended by 831 deputies.
Frederick William IV the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.
Magyar rebellion,1848 took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between 69 and 70. The rebels led by Gaius Julius Civilis managed to destroy four legions and inflict humiliating defeats on the Roman army.
Frans Joseph This king was of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916.
Cholera a water-borne disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is typically ingested by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish.
Crystal Palace was an iron and glass building originally erected in London's Hyde Park to house the Great Exhibition of 1851.
Communists sought to establish a classless, stateless social organization, based upon common ownership of the means of production.
Daguerreotype an early type of photograph named after one of its inventors, French artist and chemist Louis J.M. Daguerre. A new medium.
Lithograph A method for printing on a smooth surface. It can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or another suitable material.
Social question The widely shared concern about social changes arising from industrialization and urbanization that pervaded all forms of art and literature.
Temperance movement Tries to restrict the amount of alcohol consumption and is mainly advocated by women’s groups.
Tuberculosis Europe’s number one deadly disease that took its victims one by one and had less impact on social relations than Cholera.
Gothic a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period.
Elizabeth Fry an English prison reformer, social reformer and philanthropist. She was the driving force in legislation to make the treatment of prisoners more humane. She was supported in her efforts by a reigning monarch and has been depicted on the Bank of England £5
Flora Tristan French activist and socialist who devoted herself to reconciling the interests of male and female workers. She published a stream of books and pamphlets arguing male workers to address women’s unequal status. She advocated a Universal Union of Men and Wom
Frederic Chopin A Polish pianist and composer of the Romantic era who became a powerful champion in the West for the cause of his native land, with music that incorporated Polish rhythms and melodies.
Created by: alfromcanada on 2007-01-11



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