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EK Bio 9


Mendelian ratio heterozygous cross gives 3 to 1 ratio of dominant to recessive phenotype
phenotype expression of trait
genotype individual’s genetic make up
complete dominance for any 1 trait, a diploid individual will have 2 chromosomes each containing a separate gene that codes for that specific trait, homologous by definition
locus position on respective chromosomes where corresponding genes of homologous genes are
allele one of 2 forms of the DNA sequence of a particular gene
Law of Segregation alleles segregate independently of each other when forming gametes (any gamete is equally likely to possess any allele - with complete dominance theory gene expression)
partial or incomplete dominance when heterozygous individual exhibits a phenotype that is intermediate btw its homozygous counterparts
how to represent alleles with partial dominance with same capital letter distinguished w/ prime or superscript
codominance when heterozygous individuals exhibit both phenotypes (ex: human blood type)
Law of Independent Assortment genes located on diff chromosomes assort independently of each other (genes that code for diff traits when located on diff chromosomes do not affect each other during gamete formation)
if two genes are located on the same chromosome, the likelihood they will remain together during gamete formation is (directly/indirectly) proportional to the distance separating them indirectly proportional - the closer they are together, the more likely they will remain together
phenotypic ratio of dihybrid cross 9:3:3:1
sex chromosomes 23rd pair of chromosomes which establish the sex of the individual
karyotype map of chromosomes
sex-linked gene gene found on the sex chromosome, usually carried on the X chromosome and will be expressed in males whether dominant or not
barr body dark object formed when one of the X chromosomes condenses, formed at random, so active allele is split about evenly among cells
gene pool total of all alleles in a population
evolution change in the gene pool
taxonomical classification order kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
domains superkingdoms, there are three: bacteria, archea, and eukarya
species loosely limited to, but not inclusive of, all organism that can reproduce fertile offspring w/ each other
examples of how diff species may be prevented from producing fit offspring geographic isolation, habitat isolation, seasonal isolation, mechanical isolation, gametic isolation, hybrid inviability, select hybrid elimination, or behavioral isolation
geographic isolation separated by geography
habitat isolation live in the same location but have different habitats
seasonal isolation mate in different seasons
mechanical isolation physically impossible to mate
gametic isolation gametes are incompatible
hybrid inviability or sterility hybrid malformed
selective hybrid elimination hybrid is less fit
behavioral isolation different mating rituals
niche the way in which a species exploits its environments - no 2 species can occupy the same niche indefinitely
survival of the fittest theory which predicts that one species will exploit their environment more efficiently, eventually leading to the extinction of the other with the same niche
“fittest” organism organism which can best survive to reproduce offspring which will in turn reproduce offspring and so on generation after generation
two opposing reproductive strategies r-selection and k-selection
r-selection producing large
density independent factors affecting reproduction strategies floods or drastic temp change
density dependent factors affecting reproduction strategies carrying capacity (max number of organisms an environment can contain)
K-selection produces small brood size with slow maturing offspring and strong parental care, has sigmoidal growth curve that levels off at carrying capacity
speciation process by which new species are formed, occurs when gene flow ceases btw 2 sections of a population
factors which bring about speciation geographic, seasonal, and behavioral isolation
adaptive radiation occurs when several separate species arise from single ancestral species
evolutionary bottleneck when species faces a crisis so severe as to cause a shift in the allelic frequencies of the survivors of the crisis
divergent evolution exists when 2+ species evolving from the same grp maintain a similar structure from the common ancestor (homologus structure)
convergent evolution when two species independently evolve similar structures (analagous or homoplastic) - ex: wings evolved by bats and birds who do not have common ancestor
polymorphism occurrence of distinct phenotypic forms that vary gradually w/in a species (ex: height, flower color)
symbiosis relationship btw two species
when symbiosis is beneficial for both species, it is called... mutualism
when symbiosis is beneficial for one, but does not affect the other, it is called … commensalism
when symbiosis is beneficial for one, but detrimental to the other, it is called … parasitism
five conditions of hardy weinberg large population, mutational equilibrium, no net migration, random mating, and no survival of the fittest
genetic drift where one allele may be permanently lost due to death of all members having that allele, found in small populations but not caused by selective pressure
formula to predict genotype frequency of a gene w/ on 2 alleles in hardy-weinberg equilbirum p^2 + 2pq + q^2 where p+q= 1
urey-miller experiment one of the 1st experiments to try and show the atmosphere of early earth resulting from autosynthesis of molecules such as urea, amino acids, and even adenine
coacervates first cells are thought to evolve from these lipid or protein bilayer bubbles, they spontaneously form and grow from fat molecules suspended in water
chordata phylum containing humans, means they have bilateral symmetry, are deutorosomes, have coelom, and at some stage in their development they posses a notochord, pharyngeal slits, a dorsal, hollow nerve cord, and tail
deutorosomes organisms whose anus develops from or near the blastopore
coelom body cavity within mesodermal tissue, found in chordata
notochord an embryonic axial support, but not the backbone
Vertebrata subphylum chordata whose notochord is replaced by segmented cartilage or bone structure
Created by: miniangel918 on 2011-01-10

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