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BR Chem Ch4

Flashcards from chapter 4 of Berkley Review's chemistry book (2010)

Arrhenius acid yields H3O+ when hadded to H2O
Arrhenius base yields OH- when added to H2O
Bronsted-Lowry acid Proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry base Proton acceptor
Lewis acid Electron pair acceptor
Lewis base Electron pair donor
Amphoteric Can act as either an acid or a base
Hydronium concentration @ 25C 1x10-7M ph=7
Ka [H3O+][A-]/[HA]
pKa pKa -log(Ka)
Ka from pKa Ka = 10^-pKa
Dissociation acids dissociate in water
Hydrolysis bases under go hydrolysis in water
Equation relating pKa(HA) and pKb(A-) pKa(HA) + pKb(A-) = 14
pKa and Ka as acid strength increases pKa goes down, Ka goes up
Strong acids HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4
Strong bases LiOH, KOH, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, KOCH3, NaNH2, Li(CH2)3CH3
Weak acid 0 < pKa < 14
Very weak acid pKa > 14
Kw 1x10^-14
Haloacid trends * As halogen size increases, acid strength increases * Within a period, acidity increases with increasing electronegativity of halogen
Haloacid Of the form HX
Oxyacids Hydrogen dissociates from oxygen
Oxyacids trends * More oxygens bonded to central atom means more acidic (most important trend) * If same number of O's, increasing electronegativty of central atom increases acidity
For oxyacids, change in pKa with each additional O pKa decreases by approximately 5 for every O gained
Metal oxides lewis base
metal hydroxides bronsted-lowry base
pKa Carboxylic acid 3-5, (2-3 in amimo acid)
pKa phenol 9.5-10.5
pKa alkyl ammonium cation 9-11 (9-10 in amino acid)
non-metal oxides lewis acid
non-metal hydroxides bronsted-lowry acids
Normality moles of equivalents per liter solution. 1.0 molar diprotic acid is 2.0N
pH formula pH = -log[H3O+]
relating pH and pOH pH + pOH = 14
log(2) 0.3
log(3) 0.48
log(a*b) log(a) + log(b)
log(a/b) log(a) - log(b)
-log(a x 10^-b) b - log(a)
relationship between Ka and Kb Ka*Kb = 10^-14
Formula for pH estimation pH = (1/2)*pKa - (1/2)*log[HA]
Formula for pOH estimation pOH = (1/2)*pKb - (1/2)*log[A-]
pH > pKa (protonated or deprotonated) deprotonated
pH < pKa (protonated or deprotonated) protonated
HH equation for buffers pH = pKa + log([base]/[acid]) works for both concentrations and moles
Created by: kcurtiss