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# EK Physics 6

### waves

wave transfer of momentum & energy from 1 pt to another
three types of waves mechanical, electromagnetic, and matter
mechanical waves obey laws of classical physics and require medium to travel, separated into transverse and longitudinal waves
transverse wave one which medium is displaced perpendicularly to the direction of wave propagation
longitudinal wave one which medium is displaced parallel to the direction of wave propagation, ex: sound wave
wavelength x-axis displacement of wave, from any point to the next point it repeats itself
frequency # of wavelengths that pass thru fixed point in one second, measured in Hz
velocity relates to frequency and wavelength by which eqn? v = f*wavelength
period reciprocal of frequency = the number of seconds required for 1 wavelength to pass thru a fixed point
amplitude A, maximum displacement from zero, always positive
transverse and longitudinal waves represented mathmetically with.. sine functions
for a gas, velocity increases or decreases with temperature increases - the greater th temperature, the greater the random velocity and the greater the sound wave velocity
two aspects of medium affect velocity 1. medium's resistence to change in shape or elasticity and 2. the medium's resistance to change in motion or inertia
do sound waves move more quickly through hot or cold gases? hot gases - velocity is limited by the average speed of molecules within that gas
wave intensity increases with... the square of the amplitude and square of frequency for all waves
power of wave rate at which wave transfers energy, expressed in intensity
intensity level (B) = 10log(I/Io) given in dB's
phase of a wave relates to its wavelength, freq, and place and time of origin = kx-omega*t ** horizontal shift of a wave on a graph
constructive interference occurs when the sum of the displacements results in a greater displacement
destructive interference occurs when the sum of the displacements results in a smaller displacement
beat occurs when 2 waves with slightly different f are superimposed where at some points will have constructive/destructive interference -*alternating increase and decrease in the intensity of noise
beat frequency eqn fbeat = f1 - f2
pitch what is actually heard from the beat, average of the frequencies of the two frequencies, high notes - high pitch, and high frequency
when a wave transfers from one medium to the next, the wavelength ____ and the frequency ____. wavelength changes and frequency remains the same
node point in wave with zero displacement
antinode point of maximum constructive interference
standing wave condition where string holds perfectly still at nodes and moves violently up and down at the antinodes
first harmonic aka fundamental wavelength, longest wavelength and created w/ the fewest # of nodes - two
second harmonic one more node than the first harmonic
harmonic series where each end is tied down as a node or both ends are antinode L = n*wavelength/2 where n (=1,2,3..) is the number of harmonic and L is the distance btw the two ends of the strong
harmonic series for string tied only at one end L = n*wavelength/4 (n =1,3,5..)
resonant frequency natural frequency
period for mass on a spring T = 2*pi*sqrt(m/k)
period for pendulum T = 2*pi*sqrt(L/g)
doppler effect if source moves relative to receiver of the waves, each wave will travel a diff distance in order to reach the observer so it won't reach observer at the same frequency
when relative velocity brings source and observer closer... observed frequency goes up and observed wavelength goes down
when the relative velocity brings source and observer further away observed frequency goes down and observed wavelength goes up
doppler effect eqn change in f / source f = v / c = change wavelength / source wavelength where v = velocity of source and c = velocity of wave
wave intensity is proportional to... its energy
Created by: miniangel918