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# EK Physics 5

### fluids and solids

density rho = m/v SI units of kg/m^3 all fluids/solids will have constant density on MCAT
specific gravity S.G. = density of substance / density of water
density of water in kg/m^3 1000
density of water in g/cm^3 1
fluid pressure pressure experienced by object submersed in fluid, resulting from impulse of molecular collision on the surface area of the object; measure of KE due to random velocities of molecules w/in fluid distributed over fluid volume
pressure equals.. P = F/A SI unit, Pascal
pressure for fluid at rest P = rho*g*y where y is the depth of the fluid
in any fluid open to atmosphere, pressure equals P = pgy + P atmosphere where Patmosphere = 101,000 Pa
gauge pressure measure of pressure compared to local atmospheric pressure
Pascal's principle pressure applied anywhere to an enclosed incompressible fluid will be distributed undiminished throughout the fluid
hydraulic lift simple machine that works via Pascal's principle where pushing up on piston 1 will push up piston 2 (pressure on incompressible fluid)
buoyancy force Fb = pfluid*V*g where V is the volume of the fluid displaced *doesn't change w/depth
fraction submerged = = density of floating object / density of the fluid
ideal fluid has no viscosity, is incompressible, lacks turbulence, and experiences irrotational flow, flow rate is constant
continuity eqn Q = Av where Q is the volume flow rate, A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe, and v is the velocity
Bernoulli's eqn P + pgh + 1/2pv^2 = constant
velocity of fluid emptying in a tank v = sqrt(2gh)
fluid in pipe- as velocity increases, pressure... decreases
streamline path followed by a hypothetical fluid particle; closer they are, the greater the velocity but they never intersect
non-ideal fluids and pipe narrowing will increase the velocity of the non-ideal fluid (so would ideal fluid) but drag must be taken into consideration - will not increase velocity as much as in ideal fluid
fluid tends to flow from high pressure to low pressure - eqn? change in pressure = Q*R where R is the resistance to flow
surface tension intensity of the intermolecular forces per unit length, responsible for formation of water droplets where intermolecular forces pull inward to minimize surface are
surface tension is dependent on.. temp of fluid (higher T, weaker ST)
capillary action balance btw the intermolecular forces of the fluid molecules (cohesive) and the forces btw fluid molecules and the tubing (adhesive)
cohesive forces stronger in tube.. (ST forces) fluid is pulled downward by ST and forms convex meniscus
adhesive forces are stronger in tube .. (forces btw fluid and tubing) fluid is pulled upward by ST and forms concave meniscus
stress force applied to object divided by the area over which the force is applied = F/A
strain fractional change in an object's shape = change in dimension/original dimension
modulus of elasticity stress/strain
Young's modulus (E) tensile stress modulus
shear modulus (G) shear stress modulus
bulk modulus (B) compression and expansion
linear thermal expansion change in length = length*alpha*change in T where alpha is constant unique to the particle substance
volume thermal expansion change in volume = volume * beta * change in T where beta is the constant unique to the particular substance
Created by: miniangel918