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measure of a moving object's tendency to continue along its present path; always conserved in isolated system; is a vector

momentum equals

p = mv

elastic collision

collisions where mechanical energy is conserved

inelastic collision

when colliding objects lose some of their mechanical energy to internal energy

impulse

change in momentum (J), shows that if time over which force is increased, the same change in velocity can be achieve w/ lower force

impulse eqn

J = delta(p) = Favg*delta(t) where t is time

machines

mechanical devices that reduce force when doing work, ex: ramp. lever, and pulley

ramp

inclined plane, reduces force required to move object to height of h bc force req'd is only mgsin(theta) as opposed to mg

lever

based on principle of torque where increasing lever arm reduces force req'd

pulley

allow force to act over greater distance and do the same amt of work **remember that T is the same at every pt in the rope

half life

length of time necessary for 1/2 of a given amount of a substance to decay

alpha decay

helium nucleus (2 protons + 2 neutrons)

beta decay

expulsion of electron

positron emission

emission of positron (proton transformed into neutron)

electron capture

capture of electron along with merging of e' with proton to create a neutron

gamma ray

high frequency photon, no charge and does not change identity of atom of which it is given off

rest mass energy

E = m*c^2 = latent energy w/in mass of object

mass defect

the difference in masses of the nucleons before forming the nucleus and the measured mass of the nucleus - this mass is plugged into E=mc^2 to find binding energy

fusion

combining of two nuclei to for single heavier nucleus

fission

splitting of single nucleus to form 2 lighter nuclei