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Skull Exam

How many bones make up the facial bone region? a. 6 b. 8 c. 12 d. 14 d. 14
The widest portion of the cranium is found at the level of the? a. parietal tubercles b. right and left pterion c. squamous portion of the temporal bone d. EAM a. parietal tubercles
What is the name of the joint found between the lateral condylar processes of the skull and the superior articular processes of C1? a. zygapophyseal joint b. intervertebral joint c. occipito-atlantal joint d. cervico-occipital joint c. occipital-atlantal joint
The left mastoid fontanel becomes the _____ in an adult. a. left asterion b. left pterion c. left bregma d. squamosal suture a. left asterion
The frontal bone articulates with _____ cranial bones. a. four b. six c. two d. five a. four
Which of the following landmarks corresponds with the level of the petrous ridges? a. EAM b. TEA c. squamosal suture d. inion b. TEA (Top of ear attachment)
Which cranial bone contains the cribriform plate? a. sphenoid b. occipital c. temporal d. ethmoid d. ethmoid
Which of the following sutures separates the parietal from the occipital bone? a. squamosal b. sagittal c. coronal d. lambdoidal d. lambdoidal
Which of the following terms describes the anterior fontanel found in the adult skull? a. bregma b. pterion c. asterion d. lambda a. bregma
What is the posterior fontanel? a. bregma b. pterion c. asterion d. lambda d. lambda
What are the points at the junctions of the parietals, temporals, and the greater wings of sphenoid? a. bregma b. pterion c. asterion d. lambda b. pterion
These are points posterior to the ear where squamosal and lambdoidal sutures meet. a. bregma b. pterion c. asterion d. lambda c. asterion
Which of the following terms describes the small irregular bones occasionally found in the sutures? a. asterion b. wormian c. sesamoid d. squamosal b. wormian
An axiolateral oblique (Law Method) projection for the mastoids or TMJ on a brachycephalic-type skull would require ____ rotation as compared with an average-shaped skull. a. more b. less c. the same d. rotation depends on the patient's age a. more
The angle for a brachycephalic skull requires how many degree of angle? a. more than 47 to 54 b. 47 c. less than 40 to 47 a. more than 47 to 54 degrees
A dolichocephalic skull is considered to be? a. averaged shape b. short, broad shaped c. long, narrowed shape d. flat shape c. long, narrowed shape
The width of the brachycephalic skull is said to be? a. less than 75% of the length b. 80% or greater than the length c. 50% or greater than the length d. 75% or greater than the length b. 80% or greater than the length
The PA axial projection (Haas method) for the cranium requires a CR angle of 25o caudad. a. True b. False b. False
The SMV projection requires that the IOML is placed parallel to the image receptor. a. True b. False a. True
The aditus is defined as: a. a large chamber containing the mastoid air cells b. a thin plate of bone separating the mastoid air cells from the brain c. a passageway for the auditory nerve d. an opening between the epitympanic recess & mastoid air cel d. an opening between the epitympanic recess and the mastoid air cells
Which of the following is not part of the middle ear? a. malleus b. incus c. stapes d. cochlea d. cochlea
The osseous labyrinth includes the cochlea, the vestibule, and the semicircular canals. a. True b. False a. True
The sensory apparatus of both equilibrium and hearing are contained in the internal ear. a. True b. False a. True
The vestibule is located in the middle ear. a. True b. False b. False (it is located in the inner ear)
Which of the following projections of the mastoids provides a lateral view of the mastoids. a. Modified Law Method b. Stenvers Method c. Arcelin Method d. Towne Method a. Modified Law Method aka axiolateral oblique; Stenvers is 3 point landing PA and Arcelin is the anterior profile version.
Other than image receptor size and CR centering, positioning for the AP axial projection of the mastoids is identical to the AP axial for cranium. a. True b. False a. True
A patient comes w/ a clinical history of a possible pituitary adenoma. With no CT or MRI available, which projection would best demonstrate signs of erosion of the sella turcica? a. AP axial - Townes b. PA-Caldwell c. Lateral d. SMV c. Lateral position
The axiolateral oblique (modified Law method) best demonstrates the upside (side away from IR) mastoids. a. True b. False b. False (demonstrates the mastoids closest to IR) (Head is tilted 15o so mastoid air cells are free from superimposition of opposite side)
What is the pt position for the modified Law method? Place head lateral then rotate 15o to plane of IR; ctr IR approx 1" posterior to EAM closest to IR.
What is the largest immovable bone of the face? a. Vomer b. Mandible c. Maxilla d. Zygomatic c. Maxilla
Which facial bone forms the majority of the hard palate? a. Mandible b. Palatine c. Maxilla d. Zygomatic c. Maxilla
Which of the following terms describes the junction of the two nasal bones? a. Nasion b. Acanthion c. Glabella d. Supraorbital groove a. Nasion
The upper and lower teeth are embedded in the: a. symphysis menti b. condyloid processes c. palatine processes d. alveolar processes d. alveolar processes
What type of of joint movement occurs w/ the temporomandibular joint? a. Fibrous b. Gomphosis c. Spheroidal d. Ginglymus a. Fibrous
What is the joint classification of the joint found between the teeth and maxilla? a. Synovial b. Fibrous c. Cartilaginous d. Synarthrodial d. Synarthrodial
What is the only paranasal sinus not contained within a cranial bone? a. Maxillary b. Sphenoid c. Ethmoid d. Frontal a. Maxillary
The term antrum of Highmore refers to the: a. frontal sinuses b. ethmoid sinuses c. maxillary sinuses d. nasal cavity c. maxillary sinuses
Which sinus often produces an air/fluid level indicating a basilar skull fracture? a. Ethmoid b. Maxillary c. Sphenoid d. Frontal c. Sphenoid
Infections involving the upper teeth may involve the frontal sinuses. a. True b. False b. False (Maxillary Sinuses are infected)
The ____ sinuses develop last and are not fully developed until the teenage years. a. ethmoid b. sphenoid c. nasal d. maxillary a. ethmoid
Which bones is involved with a tripod fracture? a. Maxilla b. Ethmoid c. Temporal d. Zygomatic d. Zygomatic
A fracture involving the facial bones where a blow to one side causes a fracture to the opposite side is termed a ____ fracture. a. tripod b. blow-out c. Le Fort's d. contrecoup d. contrecoup
Which of the following modalities s/be used to evaluate a possible neoplasm involving the zygomatic and maxilla bones on a patient working in an industrial metal fabrication plant? a. CT b. MRI c. Nuclear Medicine d. Ultrasound a. CT
The lateral projection of the facial bones is typically a unilateral projection. a. True b. False a. True
Where is the CR centered for a lateral projection of the facial bones? a. Outer canthus b. Acanthion c. Midway between the glabella and the EAM d. Zygoma, midway between the EAM and the outer canthus d. Zygoma, midway between the EAM and the outer canthus
What is the angle between the OML and the plane of the IR for the parietoacanthial (Waters) projection? a. 40o b. 37o c. 42o d. 15 to 20 degrees b. 37o
The modified parietoacanthial (modified Waters) projection requires more extention of the head and neck as compared to the parietoacanthial (Waters) projection. a. True b. False b. False (Modified Waters is aligned to the Lips Meatal line and the Waters is aligned to Mentomeatal Line)
What angle is the OML line for the Waters projection? the Modified Waters projection? Waters 37o; Modified Waters 55o
The 15-degree PA axial (Caldwell) projection produces an unobstructed view of the maxilla. a. True b. False b. False
Which positioning line is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR w/ a true lateral nasal bone projection? a. OML b. AML c. Interpupillary d. Midsagittal c. Interpupillary
Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the bony nasal septum? a. Parietoacanthial b. Lateral nasal bone c. AP axial projection d. Lateral facial bone a. Parietoacanthial
The CR must be placed parallel to the ____ positioning line for the superoinferior (tangetial) projection of nasal bones. a. Glabellomeatal b. Mentomeatal c. Lips-Meatal d. Glabelloalveolar d. Glabelloalveolar
What can the RT do if the patient cannot extend the head and neck adequately for the routine SMV projection of the zygomatic arches? a. Perform Haas method b. Use short SID c. Angle CR perpendicular to IOML d. Rotate skull 15o away from affected side c. Angle the CR perpendicular to IOML
How much difference is there between the OML and IOML positioning lines? a. 7 to 8 degrees b. 8-9 degrees c. 10-11 degrees d. 5-6 degrees a. 7-8 degrees
Which projection best demonstrates the floor of the orbits? a. Parietoacanthial (Waters) b. Modified parietoacanthial (modified Waters) c. PA axial (Caldwell) d. Lateral facial bones b. Modified Parietoacanthial (modified Waters)
What is the angle between the MSP and the IR for a parieto-orbital projection of the optic foramen? a. 45o b. 12o c. 30o d. 53o d. 53o (Rhese Projection)
What is the Part Position for the Parieto-Orbital (Rhese) Projection Center affected orbit to IR; zygoma, nose and chin rest on the table; MSP forms a 53o angle to IR; AML is perp to plane of IR
How much cephalad CR angulation is required for the axiolateral projection of the mandible? a. 10-15o b. 25o c. 30o d. 45o b. 25o
How much skull rotation (from a lateral position) is required to place the ramus parallel to the IR for the axiolateral projection of the mandible? a. None b. 30o c. 45o d. 53o a. None (This rotation provides a general survey of the mandible; true lateral best demonstrates the ramus; 30o rotation demonstrates the body; 45o demonstrates the mentum)
Why is the chin extended for an axiolateral projection of the mandible? a. To open up the TMJ b. To profile the condylar process c. To prevent superimposition upon the cervical spine d. To better visualize the mentum c. To prevent superimposition upon the cervical spine
Where does the CR exit for a PA axial projection of the mandible? a. Junction of the lips b. Nasion c. Mentum d. Acanthion a. Junction of the lips
Which positioning line is perpendicular to the IR for a PA projection of the mandible? a. OML b. AML c. IOML d. GAL a. OML
Which projection will best demonstrate the entire mandible with one exposure? a. AP axial b. SMV c. Axiolateral d. Tomography b. SMV
The modified Law method for TMJ requires a ____-degree rotation of the skull and a ____-degree angle of the CR. a. 15;15 b. 10;15 c. 5;0 d. 0;25-to 30 a. 15;15
What is the position of the skull for a Schuller method projection of the TMJs? a. Midsagittal plane at a 53o angle to IR b. Skull rotated 15o toward the IR from lateral position c. True lateral position d. OML is 37o to the IR c. True lateral position (CR angle is 25o to 30o caudad; open and closed mouth)
Along with the use of erect positions, what other technical factors is important to demonstrate air/fluid levels in paranasal sinuses? a. Use of medium kV b. Horizontal x-ray beam c. Use of IR w/out a grid d. Small focal spot d. small focal spot (also medium kV is commonly used according Bontrager)
Where is the CR entered for a lateral projection of the sinuses? a. Upside EAM b. At the level of the nasion c. Midway between the acanthion and the EAM d. Midway between the outer canthus and the EAM d. Midway between the outer canthus and the EAM
Which sinuses are best demonstrated with the PA projection? a. Maxillary and sphenoid b. Frontal and ethmoid c. Sphenoid and ethmoid d. Frontal and maxillary b. Frontal and ethmoid
Which sinuses are best demonstrated with a parietoacanthial projection? a. Maxillary only b. Frontal and maxillary c. Frontal, maxillary, and ethmoid d. Sphenoid and maxillary a. Maxillary only
A radiograph of a lateral projection of the facial bones reveals that the mandibular rami are not superimposed. What specific positioning error is present on this radiograph? a. Tilt b. Excessive flexion c. Excessive extention d. Rotation d. Rotation
The recommended kV range for the superoinferior tangential projection of the nasal bones is: a. 40 to 50 b. 50 to 60 c. 60 to 70 d. 70 to 80 b. 50 to 60
Which of the following projections of the mandible results in the highest skin dose? a. Axiolateral b. SMV c. PA axial d. AP axial b. SMV
An x-ray of a Waters projection reveals the petrous ridges are superimposed over the lower 30% of the maxillary sinuses. What specific positioning error led to this finding? a. Insufficient extention b. Excessive ext c. Excessive CR angle d. No error a Insufficient extention
An x-ray of axiolateral proj of the mandible w/ the head in lat position reveals mandibular body is foreshorten. What modification is needed? a. + rotation of skull toward IR b. - the rotation of skull toward IR c. Decrease CR angle d. Increase CR angle a. Increase the rotation of skull toward the image receptor.
A patient enters the ED w/ facial injuries. The Dr is concerned of possible blow-out fracture. Which 3 proj would best diagnose the inj. a. Waters, lateral, Caldwell b. Waters, lateral, smv c. Mod waters, lateral, superoinferior d. Mod waters, 30o PA, lat d. Modified parietoacanthial (Waters), 30o PA facial, and lateral facial bone projections
Patien enters ED w/ poss fracture of right zygo arch. Which routines would best diagnose? a. SMV, waters, bilat tangential superinferior b. waters, parieto-orbital, lat c. Modified waters, 15o PA Caldwell, lateral d. SMV, Bilat obl tangential, AP Axial d. SMV, bilateral oblique tangential, and AP axial projections
For the proximal ramus of mandi. Which routines would best dx fract? a. Waters, axiolat w/ 30o rotation, lateral b. PA Mandi, axiolat w/ 45o rotation, 35o AP Axial c. PA Axial, axiolat w/ no rotat, 35o AP Axial d. PA mandible, axiolat w/ 45o rotation, SMV c. PA Axial mandible, axiolateral projection with no rotation, and a 35o AP axial projection
An x-ray of a PA Proj of the sinuses shows the petr ridges project over the ethmoid sinuses. Which change will eliminate superimposition? a. Incr ext of head & neck b. Angle the CR 5 to 10o caudad c. Incr flex of head & neck d. Have the pt open his mouth a. Increase extention of head & neck
An x-ray of a Waters proj for sinuses reveals the petrous pyramids are projected over the maxillary sinuses. What error occurred? a. Excessive flexion b. Excessive extension c. Excessive CR angulation d. Rotation of the head a. Excessive flexion
An x-ray of a SMV reveals the mandible is superimposed over the ethm & sphenoid sinuses. Which changes will eliminate the problem? a. Perform w/ pt supine b. Perform axiolat obl instead of SMV c. Incr the flex of head & neck d. Incr the ext of head & neck d. Increase the extension of the head & neck
A pt comes to radiology for a sinus series. She is unable to stand or sit erect. Which projection best detect air/fluid levels present in the maxillary sinuses? a. PA b. Waters c. Waters Transoral d. Horizontal beam lateral d. Horizontal beam lateral
A pt comes to radiology for a sinus series. Pt can't fully extend her neck for SMV. What can the RT do to produce the projection? a. Angle CR perp to OML b. Angle CR perp to IOML c. Perform proj w/ pt recumbent d. Place sandbags on forehead to extend neck b. Angle the CR to place it perpendicular to IOML.
The pathway of communication between the frontal, maxillary, and ethmoid sinuses that provides drainage between them is termed: a. paranasal meatus b. osteomeatal complex c. labyrinths d. lateral chambers b. osteomeatal complex
The most common radiographic sign for secondary osteomyelitis of the paranasal sinuses is: a. polyps b. mucosal thickening c. deviation of the bony nasal septum d. erosion of the bony margins d. erosion of the bony margins
A child enters radiology for paranasal sinuses. Because of age, the child is unable to hold still even w/ devices. The decision is to hold the child. Who s/ hold? a. Tech b. Referring dr c. Guardian d. Student c. Guardian
Which of the following structures passes through the superior orbital fissure? a. Optic nerve b. Olfactory nerve c. Cranial nerve III to VI d. Maxillary branch of the firth cranial nerve c. Cranial nerve III to VI
Paget's Disease - This is a disease of unknown origin that begins as a stage of bony destruction followed by bony repair. It involves many bony sites, including the skull. Radiographically, areas of lucency demonstrate the destructive stage, and a “cotton-wool” appearance with irregular areas of increased density (sclerosis) shows the reparative stage. Nuclear Medicine is modality of choice.
Craniosynostosis “Cranio" refers to Cranium: The upper portion of the skull. "Syn" to together, “ostosis” to the genesis of bone. Premature suture closure. Ultrasound modality of choice.
Hydrocephalus - "Hydro" is water; "cephal" is head also known as "water on the brain," is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, or cavities, of the brain. Modality of choice is Ultrasound
Early detection of metastases (meta=beyond; stases=stopping/controlling) Modality of choice is Conventional radiography. Metastases is the spread of disease from one organ or part to another non-adjacent organ or part.
Blood clots within the brain CT modality of choice
Intercranial hemorrhage in premature infants Ultrasound modality of choice
Most sensitive modality for detecting differences between normal and abnormal brain tissues MRI modality of choice
Metastases One or combination of osteolytic (destructive lesions w/ irregular margins) or osteoblastic (proliferative bony legions of increased density) creating a moth-eaten appearance
Multiple myeloma Radiolucent areas within the bony cranium. This consists of one or more bone tumors that originate in the bone marrow. The skull is a commonly affected site.
Otosclerosis Excessive bone formation generally involving both the middle and inner ear (abnormal hardening in the ear)
Acoustic neuroma Bone destruction w/ widened internal auditory canal. Benign tumor arising from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve (eight cranial nerve) in the brain. (Nerve tumor pertaining to hearing)
Cholesteatoma Bone destruction most commonly involving middle ear. Collection of skin and cholesterol in a sac w/in the middle ear.
Mastoiditis Increased densities replace mastoid air cells.
Created by: radtechstudent