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Ch 9 Workbook A

Cervical/Thoracic Spine

QuestionAnswer
How many cervical bones are found in the adult vertebral column? 7
How many thoracic bones are found in the adult vertebral column? 12
How many lumbar bones are found in the adult vertebral column? 5
How many sacral segments or bones are found in the adult body? How many in the infant body? 1; 5
How many coccygeal segments or bones are found in the adult body? How many in the newborn body? 1; 4 (avg)
How many total separate bones are found in the adult vertebral column? 26
How many total separate bones are found in newborn vertebral column? 33
Where are the two primary or posterior convex curves seen in the vertebral column? thoracic, sacral
Where are the two secondary or compensating concave curves in the vertebral column? cervical, lumbar
A curve that is rounded inward or depressed (from a posterior perspective) of the vertebral column. concave
A curve that is rounded outward or elevated from the surface (posterior perspective) of the vertebral column. convex
What compensatory curve forms as a child begins to raise their head and sit up? cervical curvature
What compensatory curve develops when children learn to walk? lumbar curvature
Which curves are more pronounced in women than men? inferior curves, lumbar and sacral
An abnormal, or exaggerated, "sway back" lumbar curvature. lordosis
An abnormal or exaggerated lateral curvature seen in the thoracolumbar spine. scoliosis
An abnormal or exaggerated thoracic "humpback" curvature. kyphosis
Lordosis of the spine is always abnormal. True/False false, only if exaggerated
The two main parts of a typical vertebra are: body, vertebral arch
The two bony aspects of the vertebral arch that extend posteriorly from each pedicle to join at the midline laminae
What foramina are created by two small notches on the superior and inferior aspects of the pedicles? intervertebral
The opening, or passageway, for the spinal cord. vertebral canal
Where does the spinal cord begin? medulla oblongata of the brain
The downward extension of the spinal cord is located where? lower L1 border
The tapered ending of the spinal cord. conus medullaris
Which structures pass through the intervertebral foramina? spinal nerves, blood vessels
The thick, weight-bearing anterior part of the vertebra. body
Why are the superior and inferior surfaces of the body rough and flat? attachment of the intervertebral disks
What extends posteriorly from the vertebral body? a ring or arch
The circular opening formed by the posterior surface of the body and the vertebral arch. vertebral foramen
What is the tubelike opening formed by the sucession of vertebral formina as a result of stacked vertebrae? vertebral canal
What does the vertebral canal do? encloses and protects the spinal cord
What extends posteriorly from either side of the vertebral body and forms most of the sides of the vertebral arch? (superior perspective) pedicles
What are the two somewhat flat layers of bone that form the posterior part of the vertebral arch? (superior perspective) laminae
What extends posteriorly from each pedicle to unite in the midline? (superior perspective) lamina
The projection that extends laterally from approximately the junction of each pedicle and lamina. (superior perspective) transverse process
The projection that extends posteriorly at the midline junction of the two laminae and most posterior extension of the vertebrae. (superior perspective) spinous process
From a lateral perspective, the posterior extensions directly off the vertebral body and are located on each side. pedicle
From a lateral perspective, where do the pedicles terminate? area of the transverse process
From a lateral perspective, what continues posteriorly from the origin of the transverse process on each side? two laminae
Where does the lamina end, from a lateral perspective? at the spinous process
How many articular processes are there? 4 (2 superior, 2 inferior)
What do the articular processes formulate? important joints of the vertebral column
What is the third main part of a typical vertebra? joints
How many joint types are in the vertebral column? 3
The joints found between the vertebral bodies. intervertebral joints
What is located within the intervertebral joints and are tightly bound to adjacent vertebral bodies for spinal stability but allow for flexibility and movement of the vertebral column? intervertebral disks
The joints located between the superior and inferior articular processes. zygapophyseal joints
The term used to describe the articulating surface. facet
The joints located along a portion of the vertebral column and articulates with the ribs to the thoracic vertebra. costal joints
The articulation of a facet, located on the body of a thoracic vertebra, with the head of a rib. costovertebral joint
The articulation of a facet, located on a transverse process of the thoracic vertebra, with the tubercle of a rib. costotransverse joint
The half moon-shaped area located along the upper surface of each pedicle. (left/right) superior vertebral notch
The half moon-shaped area located along the lower surface of each pedicle. (left/right) inferior vertebral notch
The opening formed by the alignment of the superior and inferior vertebral notches when the vertebraes are stacked. (4th aspect of vertebral column) intervertebral foramen
Where are the intervertebral foramina located? between every two vertebrae
How many intervertebral foramen (foramina) are located between every two vertebrae? 2, one on each side
What passes through the intervertebral foramina? important spinal nerves and blood vessels
Typical adult vertebrae are separated by tough fibrocartilaginous disks between every two vertebra. True/False false, not between C1 and C2 as C1 has no body
What is the purpose of the intervertebral disks? provide a resilient cushion between the vertebrae and help absorb shock during movement of the spine
What is the outer fibrous portion of the intervertebral disk? annulus fibrosus
What is the soft, semigelatinous inner part of the intervertebral disk? nucleus pulposus
What happens when the soft inner portion of the intervertebral disk, nucleus pulposes, protrudes through the outer fibrous layer, annulus fibrosus,of the intervertebral disk? it presses on the spinal cord and causes severe pain and numbness that radiates into the lower limbs
Name the condition when the soft inner portion of the intervertebral disk, nucleus pulposes, protrudes through the outer fibrous layer, annulus fibrosus,of the intervertebral disk. slipped disk
The condition causing a "slipped disk" is correctly referred to what? herniated nucleus pulposes (HNP)
The zygapophyseal joints of all cervical vertebrae are visualized only in a true lateral position. True/False false
What zygapophyseal joints of the cervical spine are visualized on a true AP projection? C1-C2
What zygapophyseal joints of the cervical spine are visualized on a true lateral projection? C3-C7
What is the vertebral column? a complex succession of many bones called vertebrae
Where is the function of the vertebral column? provide a flexible supporting column for the trunk and head and also transmit the weight of the trunk and upper body to the lower limbs
Where is the vertebral column located? midsagittal plane, forming the posterior or dorsal asapect of the bony trunk of the body
As adjacent vertebrae are stacked vertically, openings in each vertebra line up to create what? a tubelike vertical spinal canal
What does the spinal canal contain? the spinal cord
What is the spinal canal filled with? cerebrospinal fluid
What is the most common site for a lumbar puncture into the spinal canal to avoid striking the spinal cord? level of L3-L4
How many divisions are in the vertebral canal? 5; cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
How many cervical vertebrae are in the vertebral column? 7
How many thoracic vertebrae are in the vertebral column? 12
What are the unique characteristics of the cervical vertebrae? transverse foramina, bifid spinous process tips, overlapping vertebral bodies
The cervical vertebrae are all the same size. True/False false, they continue to get larger progressing down to the seventh cervical vertebra
Which vertebrae are considered "typical" vertebrae? C3-C6
What is another term used to describe the first vertebra, C1? atlas
Where was the term "atlas" for C1 derived from? a Greek god who bore the world upon his shoulders
What is the distinquishing feature of C1? it has no body but a thick arch of bone called the anterior arch which includes a small anterior tubercle
What replaces the two laminae and spinous process, found in typical vertebrae, on C1? posterior arch that includes a small posterior tubercle
What is another term used to describe the second vertebra, C2? axis
What is the most distinctive feature of C2? dens; odontoid process
What is the dens, or odontoid process? a conical process that projects up from the superior surface of the vertebra body of C2
What is the dens embryologically? body of C1; fuses to C2 during development
What holds the dens in place to C1? transverse atlantal ligament
What is to the left and right of C1? superior articular processes
What is the large depressed surface of the left and right superior articular processes on C1 called? superior facet
What is the purpose of the superior facet on the right and left superior articular processes of C1? articulation with the respective right and left occipital condyles of the skull
What are the articulations/joints between C1 and the occupital condyles of the skull called? atlantooccipital articulations
The segments of bone between the superior and inferior articular processes of a typical vertebra. articular pillars
The segment of bone between the superior and inferior articular process of C1. lateral mass
The lateral mass of C1 is the most bulky and solid part. What is it's purpose? support the weight of the head and assist in rotation of the head
Where does the rotation of the head primarily occur? between C1 and C2
What acts as a pivot for rotation of the head? dens
What assists the dens with rotation of the head? superior articular processes that articulate with the skull
What type of stress might cause fracture of the dens? forced flexion-hyperextension "whiplash" type of injury
Why is the relationship of C1 and C2 and the relationship of C1 tothe base of the skull clinically important? injury this high in the spinal canal can result in serious paralysis and death
What does the AP open mouth demonstrate? C1 and C2
Why is the anterior arch of C1, which lies in front of the dens, not clearly visible on an xray image? it is a thin piece of bone compared with the larger, more dense den
The articulations between C2 and C1, the zygapophyseal joints, and the relationship of the dens to C1 must be perfectly symmetric. What would render these areas asymmetric? injury and improper positioning
What is another term used to describe the seventh vertebra, C7? vertebra prominens
What section of the vertebral column does C7 most resemble? thoracic, spinous process is extra long and more horizontal than the other cervical vertebrae
What is the palpable bony landmark of the cervical column, where is it located and what is it's purpose? spinous process of C7, base of the neck, used for radiographic positioning
The transverse processes of the typical cervical vertebrae arise from the pedicle-lamina junction. True/False false, from the pedicle and the body
What is the hole in each transverse process of the cervical vertebra called? transverse foramen
What passes through the cervical transverse foramen? vertebral artery and veins, and certain nerves
How many foramina are found in the cervical vertebrae? Name them. 3, right and left transverse foramina and the single large vertebral foramen
The spinous processes of C2-C6 are fairly short and end in what? double-pointed or bifid tip
The cervical superior and inferior articular processes, located over and under the articular pillars, are directly lateral to what? the large vertebral foramen
The zygapophyseal joints for the second through seventh cervicle verebrae are situated at what angle? 90° or right angles to the midsagittal plane
How are the zygapophyseal joints of C3-C7 visualized radiographically? true lateral projection
How are the zygapophyseal joints of C1-C2 visualized radiographically? true AP projection
How can the intervertebral foramina of the cervical column be identified? by the pedicles
The pedicles in the cervical column form what bounderies of the intervertebral foramina? superior and inferior
The intevertebral foramina of the cervical vertebrae are situated at what angle? 45° angle to the midsagittal plane and open anteriorly
What vertebrae of the thoracic region are considered "typical" vertebrae? T5-T8, least resemble cervical or lumbar vertebrae
Describe T1-T4 characteristics. smaller, share features of the cervical vertebrae
Describe T9-T12 characteristics. larger, share characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae
What is the unique feature of all thoracic vertebrae that distinguishes them from other vertebrae? facets for rib articulation
How many facets do the thoracic vertebrae have and where are they positioned? one full facet or a partial facet on each side
Another term for two partial facets. demifacets
Each facet or combination of two demifacets located on the thoracic vertebrae accepts the head of a rib to form what joint? costovertebral
The first 10 thoracic vertebrae have an additional set of facets located where? on each side of the transverse process
Each set of facets on the transverse processes of T1-T10 that articulate with the tubercles of ribs 1-10 form what joint? costotransverse
Ribs 11 and 12 articulate only at the costotransverse joints. True/False false, costovertebral joint
How is the spinous process of the thoracic region projected? inferiorly
How is the spinous process of the thoracic region best viewed radiographically? lateral projection
How is the spinous process of the thoracic region projected radiographically on an AP, anteroposterior, projection? superimposed on the body of the successive thoracic vertebra
From a lateral oblique perspective of the thoracic spine, what direction is the superior articular processes facing? primarily posterior
From a lateral oblique perspective of the thoracic spine, what direction is the inferior articular processes facing? more anterior
What is found on each side, between any thoracic vertebrae, which are defined on the superior and inferior margins by the pedicles? intervertebral foramina
In the thoracic vertebrae, what angle do the zygapophyseal joints form? 70-75° from the midsagittal plane
What postition would be needed in order to "open up"and radiographically demonstrate the thoracic zygapophyseal joints? an oblique 70-75° rotated position with a perpendicular central ray
The openings of the intervertebral foramina on the thoracic vertebra are located at what angle? 90° or right angles to the midsagittal plane
What postition would be needed in order to radiographically demonstrate the thoracic intervertebral foramina? true lateral, 90° projection will demonstrate the right and left superimposed on each other
Created by: Beverly Jo Miller-Cox Beverly Jo Miller-Cox on 2010-02-07



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